Relevant peer reviewed journal sources include:


Barker, D.S., 1983, Igneous Rocks: Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Boxer, G.L., and Jaques, A.L., 1990, Argyle (AK1) diamond deposit, in Geology and Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea, Hughes, F.E., ed., The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne, p. 697-706.

Boyle, R.W., 1979, The geochemistry of gold and its deposits: Geological Survey of canada Bulletin 280, 584 p.

Cox, K.G., 1978, Kimberlite pipes: Scientific American.

Evans, A.M., Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals: Blackwell Science, 389 p.

Franklin, J.M., Lydon, J.W., and Sangster, D.F., 1981, Volcanic associated massive sulphide deposits: Economic Geology 75th Anniversary Vol., p. 485-627.

Guilbert, J.M., Park, C.F., Jr., The geology of Ore eposits: W.H. Freeman and Company, 985 p.

Halbach and others, 1989, Probable modern analogue of Kuroko-type massive sulphide deposits in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin: Nature, v. 338, p. 496-499.

Hawthorne, J.B., 1975, Model of a kimberlite pipe: Phys. Chem. Earth, v. 9, p. 1-15.

Hill, R.E.T., Barnes, S.J., Gole, M.J., and Dowling, S.E., 1987, Physical volcanology of komatiites: Excursion Guidebook No. 1: Geological Society of Australia, 99 p.

Hill, R.E.T., Barnes, S.J., and Perring, C.S., 1996, Komatiite volcanology and volcanogenic setting of associated magmatic nickel deposits, in Nickel ’96, Australian Institute of Mining and metallurgy Publication Series No 6/96, p. 91- 95.

Hill, R.E.T., Gale, M.J., and Barnes, S.J., 1989, Olivine adcumulates in the Norseman-Wiluna greenstone belt, Western Australia: Implications for the volcanology of komatiites: in Magmatic Sulphides - the Zimbabwe volume (ed., M.D. Prendergast): The Institution of Mining and metallurgy: London, p. 189-206.

Hill, R.E.T., Barnes, S.J., Gole, M.J., and Dowling, S.E., 1987, Physical volcanology of komatiites: Excursion Guidebook No. 1: Geological Society of Australia, 99 p.

Jaques, A.L., Lewis, J.D., and Smith, C.B., 1986, The kimberlites and lamproites of Western Australia: Geological Survey of Western Australia Bulletin 132, 268 p.

Meeker, K. A., Chuan, R. L., Kyle, P. R., and Palais, J. M., 1991, Emission of elemental gold particles from Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 1405-1408.

Ohmoto, H., 1996, Formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits: The Kuroko perspective: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 10, p. 135-177.

Sato, T., 1974, Distribution and geologic setting of the Kuroko deposits: Society. Min. Geol. Japan Special Issue 6, p. 1-9.

Sawkins, F.J., Metal Deposits in Relation to Plate Tectonics: Springer Verlag, 461 p.

Sillitoe, R.H., 1973, The tops and bottoms of porphyry copper deposits: Economic geology, v. 68, p. 799-815.

Tatsumi, T., 1970, Volcanism and Ore genesis: University of Tokyo Press.

Whitney, J.A., and Naldrett, A.J., Ore Deposition Associated with Magma: Reviews in Economic Geology, v. 4. 250 p.


Other excellent sources of information include:


If you need a summary of the nature of any element visit the Webelements.

If the mineral names are confusing visit Minerals by Name to learn more about each mineral.

United States Geological Survey Mineral Resources describes mineral resources in different regions.

Natural Resources Canada has numerous interesting pages including Minerals and Metals at Home!

The Minerals Council site provides current general information and educational material about the Australian minerals industry.

The Smithsonian Gem & Mineral Collection has numerous photos of very large diamonds.

The Gold Institute has information about gold.

The Nickel Institute provides information on the uses and properties of nickel.

The Copper Page provides information on the uses and properties of copper.

Timothy J. Barrett and Ore Systems Consulting describe several VMS deposits in British Columbia.