Chapter 5 TEST
Rocks and Minerals II
1-4. Name the four eras of geologic time in order from the oldest era to present era.
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
5. What was the dominant animal of the Mesozoic?
Reptiles also accept "Dinosaurs"
6. What was the dominant animal of the Cenozoic?
7-9. What three forces cause weathering?
Ice, wind, and water
10-12. Name the three processes that form sedimentary rocks.
Cementation, compaction, and recrystallization
13. How does coal form?
Organic sedimentary rocks form from the build up and decay of plant and animal material. This usually forms in swamp regions in which there is an abundant supply of growing vegetation and low amounts of oxygen. The vegetation builds so quickly that new layers of vegetation bury the dead and decaying material very quickly. The bacteria that decay the vegetation need oxygen to survive. Because these decaying layers are buried so fast the bacteria use up what oxygen there is available and can not finish the decomposition of the vegetation. The overlaying layers become so heavy that they squeeze out the water and other compounds that aid in decay.
This compressed vegetation forms coal. The longer and deeper that coal is buried makes it of higher quality.
14-15. What is the
of stalagmites and stalactites.
Stalactites are formed by dripping ground water that has a high concentration of calcium carbonate. They form from the ceiling down. Stalagtites form the same way but they grow from the ground up.
16. What is a metamorphic rock?
A metamorphic rock is formed from heat and pressure changing an already existing rock.
#17-26 Match the following terms with the corresponding definition.
17. _H__ Shale A. The parent rock of this
metamorphic rock is limestone.
18. _A__ Marble B. A metamorphic rock that is
similar to granite in composition.
19. _F__ Regional C. Breaking down of rock by ice, Metamorphic wind, and water.
20. __J_ Physical D. A sedimentary rock made of Change calcium carbonate.
21. _B__ Gneiss E. A type of metamorphism caused by extreme heat from volcanic activity.
22. __D__ Limestone F. A type of metamorphism caused by large scale mountain building.
23. _C__ Weathering G. Broken pieces of rock.
24. __E__ Contact H. The most common Metamorphism sedimentary rock produced by the cementarion of clay and silt.
25. _G__ Sediment I. The laying down of sediment by natural causes.
26. __I__ Deposition J. Mountain building, climate, continents drifting
27. _K_ Biological K. Fish to amphibian to reptile to Change mammal