Test Chapter 2

Earthquakes and Volcanoes



1.  ___D___ Fault  A. gods and goddesses of ancient mythology
2.  ___B___Focus  B. The three types of earthquake waves.
3.  ___E___Magnitude  C. The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the earthquake.
4.  ___F___Tsunami  D. Long crack in the crust of Earth.
5.  ___A___Pele, Vulcan, and Kashima  E. measure of the strength of an earthquake
6.  ___C___ Epicenter  F. Seismic sea wave caused by an earthquake, hurricane, or underwater landslide.
7.  ___B___Compression-Shear-Surface  H. Exact point of origin of an earthquake. Usually found deep under the surface of the Earth.


9.  ___B___Volcano  A. A volcano that has not erupted in recorded time and is not considered to do
10. ___E___Dormant Volcano  B. An opening in the surface of the Earth in which molten rock and gas can escape 
11. ___A___Extinct Volcano  C. Bowl shaped depression located at the top of the main vent in a volcano
12. ___F___Magma  D. Molten rock found on the surface of the Earth
13. ___D___Lava  E. A volcano that is resting
14. ___G___Conduit  F. Molten rock found under the surface of the Earth
15. ___C___Crater  G. The main passageway for magma in a volcano

16-21. Name the three ways that volcanoes form and describe the process of formation for each.

  1. Volcanoes can form at subduction zones where two plates collide, one being driven down into the mantle and the other riding over the top. This causes the lithospheric plate to melt and being less dense than the rock in the mantle it will rise. This rising magma will produce a volcano.
  2. Volcanoes can form at a mid-ocean ridge. When the two plates separate magma fills the void and a volcano is produced. These chains of volcanic mountains are the longest mountain chain in the world.  
  3. Volcanoes can also form at a hot spot.


22. Why do earthquakes ocurr? Earthquakes occur because the Earth's plate are in motion. The plates do not move smoothly and evenly. Great stresses build up along the plate boundaries. When a plate moves suddenly a great amount of energy is released in the form of wave energy. These waves are what cause the damage from an earthquake.

23. Where do most of the world's earthquakes occur? Along plate boundaries. The main earthquake zones are the Circum-Pacific belt that stretches around the rim of the Pacific Ocean and the Alpide Belt in Europe and Asia.

24. How does a volcano grow larger? Volcanoes grow from their eruptions. When avolcano erupts it ejects lava, or pyroclasts, or both that builds the cone larger and larger.


Name the volcanic term for each letter.

A. Magma Chamber D. Conduit 

B. Dike E. Crater

C. Side Vent F. Layers of lava and ash