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Volcano Term Definitions
Hawaiian word used to describe a lava flow whose surface is broken into rough angular fragments.
A mineral whose presence in a rock is not essential to the proper classification of the rock.
A rounded mass, ranging in diameter from a few centimeters to several meters, [carried] on the surface of a lava flow (e.g., 'a'a) or on cinder-cone slopes [and formed] by the molding of viscous lava around a core of already solidified lava.
A descriptive term applied to igneous rocks with more than 60% silica (SiO2).
A volcano that is erupting. Also, a volcano that is not presently erupting, but that has erupted within historical time and is considered likely to do so in the future.
Rocks which contain above average amounts of sodium and/or potassium for the group of rocks for which it belongs. For example, the basalts of the capping stage of Hawaiian volcanoes are alkalic. They contain more sodium and/or potassium than the shield-building basalts that make the bulk of the volcano.
A body of rock that contains significant quantities of water that can be tapped by wells or springs.
Fine particles of pulverized rock blown from an explosion vent. Measuring less than 1/10 inch in diameter, ash may be either solid or molten when first erupted. By far the most common variety is vitric ash (glassy particles formed by gas bubbles bursting through liquid magma).
A turbulent mixture of gas and rock fragments, most of which are ash-sized particles, ejected violently from a crater or fissure. The mass of pyroclastics is normally of very high temperature and moves rapidly down the slopes or even along a level surface.
The shell within the earth, some tens of kilometers below the surface and of undefined thickness, which is a shell of weakness where plastic movements take place to permit pressure adjustments.
A large mass of material or mixtures of material falling or sliding rapidly under the force of gravity. Avalanches often are classified by their content, such as snow, ice, soil, or rock avalanches. A mixture of these materials is a debris avalanche.
The undifferentiated rocks that underlie the rocks of interest in an area.
The unstable, newly-formed front of a lava delta.
A swelling of the crust of a lava flow formed by the puffing-up of gas or vapor beneath the flow. Blisters are about 1 meter in diameter and hollow.
Angular chunk of solid rock ejected during an eruption.
Fragment of molten or semi-molten rock, 2 1/2 inches to many feet in diameter, which is blown out during an eruption. Because of their plastic condition, bombs are often modified in shape during their flight or upon impact.
The Spanish word for cauldron, a basin-shaped volcanic depression; by definition, at least a mile in diameter. Such large depressions are typically formed by the subsidence of volcanoes. Crater Lake occupies the best-known caldera in the Cascades.
A volcano constructed by the ejection of debris and lava flows from a central point, forming a more or less symmetrical volcano.
A volcanic cone built entirely of loose fragmented material (pyroclastics.)
A steep-walled horseshoe-shaped recess high on a mountain that is formed by glacial erosion.
The breaking of a mineral along crystallographic planes, that reflects a crystal structure.
A steep volcanic cone built by both lava flows and pyroclastic eruptions.
Solid, outer layers of the earth, including the rocks of the continents.
The theory that horizontal movement of the earth's surface causes slow, relative movements of the continents toward or away from one another.
The rock intruded by and surrounding an igneous intrusion.
A steep-sided, usually circular depression formed by either explosion or collapse at a volcanic vent.
A part of the earth's crust that has attained stability and has been little deformed for a prolonged period.
A row of coalescing lava fountains along a fissure; a typical feature of a Hawaiian-type eruption
A rapid and unusually sudden sliding or flowage of unsorted masses of rock and other material. As applied to the major avalanche involved in the eruption of Mount St. Helens, a rapid mass movement that included fragmented cold and hot volcanic rock, water, snow, glacier ice, trees, and some hot pyroclastic material. Most of the May 18, 1980 deposits in the upper valley of the North Fork Toutle River and in the vicinity of Spirit Lake are from the debris avalanche.
The surface along which a landslide disconnects from its original position.
A period of time in the Paleozoic Era that covered the time span between 400 and 345 million years.
A breccia filled volcanic pipe that was formed by a gaseous explosion.
A sheetlike body of igneous rock that cuts across layering or contacts in the rock into which it intrudes.
A steep-sided mass of viscous (doughy) lava extruded from a volcanic vent (often circular in plane view) and spiny, rounded, or flat on top. Its surface is often rough and blocky as a result of fragmentation of the cooler, outer crust during growth of the dome.
The area of land drained by a river system.
Set of geologic features that are in an overlapping or a staggered arrangement (e.g., faults). Each is relatively short, but collectively they form a linear zone in which the strike of the individual features is oblique to that of the zone as a whole.
The process by which solid, liquid, and gaseous materials are ejected into the earth's atmosphere and onto the earth's surface by volcanic activity. Eruptions range from the quiet overflow of liquid rock to the tremendously violent expulsion of pyroclastics.
The column of gases, ash, and larger rock fragments rising from a crater or other vent. If it is of sufficient volume and velocity, this gaseous column may reach many miles into the stratosphere, where high winds will carry it long distances.
The opening through which volcanic material is emitted.
Temporarily move people away from possible danger.
A volcano that is not presently erupting and is not likely to do so for a very long time in the future.
A steep slope or cliff formed directly by movement along a fault and representing the exposed surface of the fault before modification by erosion and weathering.
An igneous rock having abundant light-colored minerals.
Elongated fractures or cracks on the slopes of a volcano. Fissure eruptions typically produce liquid flows, but pyroclastics may also be ejected.
Produced by the action of of flowing water.
The manner of breaking due to intense folding or faulting.
Energy derived from the internal heat of the earth.
Power generated by using the heat energy of the earth.
A type of seamount that has a platform top. Named for a nineteenth-century Swiss-American geologist.
The resistance of a mineral to scratching.
A continuous release of seismic energy typically associated with the underground movement of magma. It contrasts distinctly with the sudden release and rapid decrease of seismic energy associated with the more common type of earthquake caused by slippage along a fault.
Movement of heat from one place to another.
Material is made up of a heterogeneous mix of different rock types. Instead of being composed on one rock type, it is composed of fragments of many different rocks.
The time period from 10,000 years ago to the present. Also, the rocks and deposits of that age.
A block of the earth's crust, generally long compared to its width, that has been uplifted along faults relative to the rocks on either side.
A volcanic center, 60 to 120 miles (100 to 200 km) across and persistent for at least a few tens of million of years, that is thought to be the surface expression of a persistent rising plume of hot mantle material. Hot spots are not linked to arcs and may not be associated with ocean ridges.
Volcanoes related to a persistent heat source in the mantle.
An underground zone of porous rock containing hot water.
The place on a buried fault where an earthquake occurs.
The rock formed by the widespread deposition and consolidation of ash flows and Nuees Ardentes. The term was originally applied only to densely welded deposits but now includes non-welded deposits.
The process of emplacement of magma in pre-existing rock. Also, the term refers to igneous rock mass so formed within the surrounding rock.
A surface of fracture in a rock.
An area surrounded by a lava flow.
A body of igneous rocks with a flat bottom and domed top. It is parallel to the layers above and below it.
A series of unmanned satellites orbiting at about 706 km (438 miles) above the surface of the earth. The satellites carry cameras similar to video cameras and take images or pictures showing features as small as 30 m or 80 m wide, depending on which camera is used.
Literally "little stones." Round to angular rock fragments, measuring 1/10 inch to 2 1/2 inches in diameter, which may be ejected in either a solid or molten state.
Magma which has reached the surface through a volcanic eruption. The term is most commonly applied to streams of liquid rock that flow from a crater or fissure. It also refers to cooled and solidified rock.
A tunnel formed when the surface of a lava flow cools and solidifies while the still-molten interior flows through and drains away.
Delicate, translucent sheets of spatter filled with tiny glass bubbles.
Of or pertaining to stone.
The reflection of light from the surface of a mineral.
An igneous composed chiefly of one or more dark-colored minerals.
Molten rock beneath the surface of the earth.
Pertaining to magma.
A numerical expression of the amount of energy released by an earthquake, determined by measuring earthquake waves on standardized recording instruments (seismographs.) The number scale for magnitudes is logarithmic rather than arithmetic. Therefore, deflections on a seismograph for a magnitude 5 earthquake, for example, are 10 times greater than those for a magnitude 4 earthquake, 100 times greater than for a magnitude 3 earthquake, and so on.
The zone of the earth below the crust and above the core.
The solid matter in which a fossil or crystal is embedded. Also, a binding substance (e.g., cement in concrete).
An epoch in Earth's history from about 24 to 5 million years ago. Also refers to the rocks that formed in that epoch.
Also called the Mohorovicic discontinuity. The surface or discontinuity that separates the crust from the mantle. The Moho is at a depth of 5-10 km beneath the ocean floor and about 35 km below the continents (but down to 60 km below mountains). Named for Andrija Mohorovicic, a Croatian seismologist.
A flowage of water-saturated earth material possessing a high degree of fluidity during movement. A less-saturated flowing mass is often called a debris flow. A mudflow originating on the flank of a volcano is properly called a lahar.
A French term applied to a highly heated mass of gas-charged ash which is expelled with explosive force and moves hurricane speed down the mountainside.
A black or dark-colored volcanic glass, usually composed of rhyolite.
The earth's crust where it underlies oceans.
A major submarine mountain range.
A Hawaiian term for lava with a smooth, billowy, or ropy surface.
Hawaiian word for steep hills or cliffs.
A natural spun glass formed by blowing-out during quiet fountaining of fluid lava, cascading lava falls, or turbulent flows, sometimes in association with pele tears. A single strand, with a diameter of less than half a millimeter, may be as long as two meters.
Small, solidified drops of volcanic glass behind which trail pendants of Pele hair. They may be tear-shaped, spherical, or nearly cylindrical.
Igneous rocks in which the molecular proportion of aluminum oxide is less than that of sodium and potassium oxides combined.
A conspicuous, usually large, crystal embedded in porphyritic igneous rock.
Interconnected, sack-like bodies of lava formed underwater.
Capable of being molded into any form, which is retained.
The theory that the earth's crust is broken into about 10 fragments (plates,) which move in relation to one another, shifting continents, forming new ocean crust, and stimulating volcanic eruptions.
A epoch in Earth history from about 2-5 million years to 10,000 years ago. Also refers to the rocks and sediment deposited in that epoch.
An explosive eruption in which a steady, turbulent stream of fragmented magma and magmatic gases is released at a high velocity from a vent. Large volumes of tephra and tall eruption columns are characteristic.
Solidified lava that fills the conduit of a volcano. It is usually more resistant to erosion than the material making up the surrounding cone, and may remain standing as a solitary pinnacle when the rest of the original structure has eroded away.
The steep-sided, rounded mound formed when viscous lava wells up into a crater and is too stiff to flow away. It piles up as a dome-shaped mass, often completely filling the vent from which it emerged.
A large igneous intrusion formed at great depth in the crust.
Originating in various ways or from various sources.
All geologic time from the beginning of Earth history to 570 million years ago. Also refers to the rocks that formed in that epoch.
Light-colored, frothy volcanic rock, usually of dacite or rhyolite composition, formed by the expansion of gas in erupting lava. Commonly seen as lumps or fragments of pea-size and larger, but can also occur abundantly as ash-sized particles.
Pertaining to fragmented (clastic) rock material formed by a volcanic explosion or ejection from a volcanic vent.
Lateral flowage of a turbulent mixture of hot gases and unsorted pyroclastic material (volcanic fragments, crystals, ash, pumice, and glass shards) that can move at high speed (50 to 100 miles an hour.) The term also can refer to the deposit so formed.
The period of Earth's history from about 2 million years ago to the present; also, the rocks and deposits of that age
The vertical difference between the summit of a mountain and the adjacent valley or plain.
The interval of time between volcanic eruptions.
The oceanic ridges formed where tectonic plates are separating and a new crust is being created; also, their on-land counterparts such as the East African Rift.
A zone of volcanic features associated with underlying dikes. The location of the rift is marked by cracks, faults, and vents.
The regions of mountain-building earthquakes and volcanoes which surround the Pacific Ocean.
The mechanism by which new seafloor crust is created at oceanic ridges and slowly spreads away as plates are separating.
A submarine volcano
An instrument that records seismic waves; that is, vibrations of the earth.
Scientists who study earthquake waves and what they tell us about the inside of the Earth.
An instrument that measures motion of the ground caused by earthquake waves.
Earthquake waves that move up and down as the wave itself moves. For example, to the left.
The motion of surfaces sliding past one another.
A trachyandesite composed of olivine and augite phenocrysts in a groundmass of labradorite with alkali feldspar rims, olivine, augite, a small amount of leucite, and some dark-colored glass. Its name is derived from the Shoshone River, Wyoming and given by Iddings in 1895.
A chemical combination of silicon and oxygen
A tabular body of intrusive igneous rock, parallel to the layering of the rocks into which it intrudes.
An opening formed by a collapse in the roof of a lava tube
A type of fumarole, the gases of which are characteristically sulfurous.
A low, steep-sided cone of spatter built up on a fissure or vent. It is usually of basaltic material
The density of a mineral divided by the density of water.
Horn-like projections formed upon a lava dome.
A cone shaped deposit of minerals hanging from the roof of a cavern.
The study of rock strata, especially of their distribution, deposition, and age.
The color of a mineral in the powdered form.
A nearly vertical fault with side-slipping displacement.
The zone of convergence of two tectonic plates, one of which usually overrides the other.
A ring-shaped cloud of gas and suspended solid debris that moves radially outward at high velocity as a density flow from the base of a vertical eruption column accompanying a volcanic eruption or crater formation.
A slope formed a the base of a steeper slope, made of fallen and disintegrated materials.
The collection, preparation, petrographic description, and approximate dating of tephra.
The angle between the slope of a part of a volcano and some reference. The reference may be the slope of the volcano at some previous time.
A group of fine-grained, generally porphyritic, extrusive igneous rocks having alkali feldspar and minor mafic minerals as the main components, and possibly a small amount of sodic plagioclase.
Low amplitude, continuous earthquake activity often associated with magma movement.
A great sea wave produced by a submarine earthquake, volcanic eruption, or large landslide.
Rock formed of pyroclastic material.
A wide, low-rimmed, well-bedded accumulation of hyalo-clastic debris built around a volcanic vent located in a lake, coastal zone, marsh, or area of abundant ground water.
Igneous rocks made mostly of the mafic minerals hypersthene, augite, and/or olivine.
A substantial break or gap in the geologic record where a rock unit is overlain by another that is not next in stratigraphic sucession, such as an interruption in continuity of a depositional sequence of sedimentary rocks or a break between eroded igneous rocks and younger sedimentary strata. It results from a change that caused deposition to cease for a considerable time, and it normally implies uplift and erosion with loss of the previous formed record.
The opening at the earth's surface through which volcanic materials issue forth.
A small air pocket or cavity formed in volcanic rock during solidification
A measure of resistance to flow in a liquid (water has low viscosity while honey has a higher viscosity.)
A generally curved linear belt of volcanoes above a subduction zone, and the volcanic and plutonic rocks formed there.
A persistent volcanic vent area that has built a complex combination of volcanic landforms.
A massive pillar of rock more resistant to erosion than the lavas and pyroclastic rocks of a volcanic cone.
Roman god of fire and the forge after whom volcanoes are named.
The surface between where the pore space in rock is filled with water and where the the pore space in rock is filled with air.
A crystal that resembles a phenocryst in igneous rock, but is a foreign to the body of rock in which it occurs.
A foreign inclusion in an igneous rock.