OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

Volcanogenic Tsunamis

 

                                    Noteworthy Volcanic Tsunamis:

Tonga tsunami

                                   Photo Courtesy: AFP                                                              Photo Courtesy:  IUGG

Date of Tsunami

Volcano Location

Tsunami Cause and Impact

1638 BC

Santorini, Greece

Ø  Destruction of the population of Crete

79 AD

Vesuvius, Italy

Ø  Caldera collapse

Ø  Unknown devastation

1631

Vesuvius, Italy

Ø  Worst Vesuvius tsunami

Ø  Result of subplinian eruption

Ø  Many boats destroyed

1640

Komagatake, Japan 

Ø  Summit collapse from landslide

Ø  700 people killed

1715

Taal, Philippines

Ø  Base surge-induced tsunami

1741

Oshima-Oshima, Japan

Ø  Volcanic earthquake

Ø  1,467 people killed

1749

Taal, Philippines

Ø  Base sure-induced tsunami

1792

Unzen, Japan

Ø  Landslide from nearby Mt Mayuyama

Ø  55m tsunami waves

Ø  Around 15,000 people killed

1815

Tambora, Indonesia

Ø  Pyroclastic flows entering sea

Ø  Waves over 10m

Ø  Over 10,000 people dead

1871

Ruang, Indonesia

Ø  Pyroclastic flow

Ø  26m waves

1878

Yasur, Vanuata

Ø  Volcanic earthquake

Ø  16m waves

1878

Okmok, Alaska, USA

Ø  Volcanic earthquake-induced

1883

Augustine, Alaska, USA

Ø  Volcanic landslide

Ø  9m waves

1883

Krakatau, Indonesia

Ø  40m waves

Ø  36,000 people dead

1888

Ritter, Papua new Guinea

Ø  Volcano collapse and avalanche

Ø  15m waves

Ø  Hundreds killed on shoreline

1902

Pelee, Carribean

Ø  Pyroclastic flow-induced

1913

Ambrym, Vanuatu

Ø  Underwater eruption

1928

Paluweh, Indonesia

Ø  Volcanic landslide

Ø  10m waves

Ø  150 people killed

1930

Stromboli, Italy

Ø  Volcanic earthquake and landslide

Ø  2m waves

1933

Severgin, Kurile Islands

Ø  Volcanic earthquake

Ø  10m tsunami waves

1956

Bezymianny, Russia

Ø  Shockwave-induced tsunami

1969

Didicas, Philippines

Ø  3 people killed

1972, 1974

Ritter, Papua New Guinea

Ø  Small tsunamis from subsidence of volcano

1979

Illiwerung, Indonesia

Ø  Volcanic landslide

Ø  9m waves

Ø  Over 500 people dead

1980

St Helens, Washington, USA

Ø  Volcanic landslide

Ø  250m waves in Spirit Lake

1983

Illiwerung, Indonesia

Ø  Submarine eruption

Ø  Few deaths

1986

Nyos, Cameroon

Ø  Underwater CO2 eruption

Ø  75m tsunami waves

1988

Vulcano, Italy

Ø  Volcanic landslide

Ø  5.5m waves

1994

Rabaul, Papua New Guinea

Ø  Pyroclastic flow-induced

Ø  1.2m waves

1996

Karymsky, Russia

Ø  Phreatomagmatic eruption

Ø  30m waves

1997

Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

Ø  Volcanic debris slide

Ø  3m waves

2002

Stromboli, Italy

Ø  Landslide-induced tsunami

2007

Ritter, Papua New Guinea

Ø  Eruption-induced landslide

Ø  Many homes destroyed