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Volcanic gases rising from the summit of Mt. Gamkonora on Halmahera looking south down the Halmahera arc.
Photograph by Bruce Gemmell, University of Tasmania.
The multi-colored layers of the summit rift of Mt. Gamkornora, the highest peak on Halmahera at 1635 meters. Steam is belching out of the active creater while the crater in the foreground appears dormant.
May 2000 - Photograph by Dan Olberg, Senior Geologist, PT Nusa Halmahera Minerals.
Gamkonora is a stratovolcano with 12 historic eruption between 1564 and 1987. Nearly all of the eruptions were explosive. The eruptions in 1564 and 1673 caused fatalities and damage. The 1673 eruption was the largest (VEI=5) and a tsunami associated with the eruption produced waves that inundated villages. The 1981 eruption include phreatic explosions.
Sources of Information:
Carlile, J.C., Davey, G.R., Kadir, I., Langmead, R.P., and Rafferty, W.J., 1998, Discovery and exploration of the Gosowong epithermal gold deposit, Halmahera, Indonesia: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 60, p. 207-227.
Kusumadinata, K., 1977, Data on the Dukono volcano; Berita Direktorat Geologi, v. 9, no. 16, p. 183.
McClelland, L., Simkin, T., Summers, M., Nielsen, E., and Stein, T.C., 1989, Global Volcanism 1975-1985: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 655 p.
Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.