Agua de Pau, a stratovolcano with a caldera, erupted in 1563 and 1564.
The 1563 eruption was at the Cerro Qurimado vent on the northwest flank of the caldera.
The eruption lasted almost a month and was initailly Plinian and later produced lava flows that caused some damage.
The 1564 eruption lasted only two days and was near Lagoa do Fogo caldera. It may have been a phreatic eruption.
Thick pumice deposits on the flank of the volcano are probably the result of caldera-forming eruptions.
The volcanoes of San Miguel Island and nearby waters based on van Padang and others (1967).
This Space Shuttle photo looks across the Island of Sao Miguel. The caldera of Sete Cidades is visible on the west end of the island (left side in photo).
The caldera of Agua de Pau is visible near the center of the island. Space Shuttle photo STS41G-0034-0100.
Sources of Information:
Booth, B., Croasdale, R., and Walker, G.P.L., 1978, A quantitative study of five thousand years of volcanism on Sao Miguel, Azores: Phil. Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, v. 288, p. 271-319.
Martin, J.A., 1982, Excursion guide for field trip V1, Islands of Sao Miguel: Proceedings International Symposium Activity Oceanic Volcanoes, Archipelago University Azores, 3: p. 315-328.
Moore, R.B., 1983, Preliminary geologic map of Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 83-395.
Moore, R.B., 1986, Preliminary geologic map of Agua de Pau volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 86-192.
Moore, R.B., 1990, Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, Sao Miguel, Azores: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 52, p. 602-614.
Neumann van Padang, M., Richards, A.F., Machado, F., Bravo, T., Baker, E., Le Maitre, W., 1967, Part XXI, Atlantic Ocean: Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world, International Association of Volcanology, Rome, Italy, 128 p.
Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.