Where does the funding come from to study volcanoes and how much does it cost?
Funding for studying volcanoes typically comes from one of two places depending on who is doing the research. Typically if the volcanologist is working for the government, such for the US Geological Survey, then their money comes from the agency that they are working for. If the volcanologist is at a university then the money comes from grants from various groups, like the National Science Foundation. This model is, for the most part, followed throughout the world with the amount of funding available to scientists depending dramatically upon the finances of the individual country. Unfortunately volcanology is very expensive. This is because the equipment to monitor and study volcanoes costs a lot of money. Also, international airfare, field expenses, laboratory analyses of samples, and many other similar aspects of volcanology add up to a high price tag. However, the cost of not doing much of this research can be measured in human lives rather than dollars.