Bougainville is an island northwest of the Solomon Islands and east of New Britain and Papua New Guinea. Bagana is one of seven volcanoes on Bougainville that have been active in the last 10,000 years. Bagana, classified as a lava cone, is made of thick steep-sided blocky lava flows. The lava flows are andesite and can be up to 500 feet (150 m) thick. Pyroclastic deposits are a minor volume of the volcano. This photo of Bagana shows the southwest slopes of the volcano and was taken in October, 1964. Photo courtesy of Jack Lockwood, U.S. Geological Survey.
The first known eruption of Bagana was in 1842. Since then there have been at least 22 eruptions. Most of the eruptions have been explosive (VEI=2-3) and about half of the eruptions have produced lava flows. Several people were killed by the "great explosion" in December 1883 or January 1884. Major eruptions occurred in 1950, 1952, and 1966. Bagana has been erupting since 1972, creating slow-moving lava flows. Some explosive eruptions produce nuee ardentes and voluminous ash clouds. An overflight of Bagana in August of 1995 revealed lava flows on the southwest flank on the volcano.
Space Shuttle photo STS61A-0467-0009 looking southeast along central Bougainville Island.
Location of major volcanoes on Bougainville Island. From Bultitude (1976).
Bultitude, R.J., 1976, Eruptive history of Bagana Volcano, Papua New Guinea, between 1882 and 1975, in Johnson, R.W., ed., Volcanism in Australasia: New York, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, p. 317-336.
Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.
Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network, 1995, Summary of Recent Activity: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 57, p. 584-585.
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