These five volcanic centers are about 200 km northeast of White Island. The status of Rumble I and II is uncertain, meaning they may have had activity in the last 10,000 years but the documentation of possible eruptions is questionable. Rumble III is the most active of the remote volcanoes with eruptions in 1958, 1963, 1970, 1973, and 1986. The eruptions were detected and located with hydrophones. Fumeroles have been detected at Rumble IV and V.
Hall, L.H., Rumble IV Seamount - no rumble?: New Zealand Journal Geol. Geophy., v. 28, p. 569.
Kibblewhite, A.C., 1966, The acoustic detection and location of an underwater volcano: New Zealand Jour. Sci., v. 9, p. 178-199.
Latter, J.H., Lloyd, E.F., Smith, I.E.M., and Nathan, S., 1992, Volcanic hazards in the Kermadec Islands, and at submarine volcanoes between southern Tonga and new Zealand: New Zealand Ministry Civil defense, Volcanic Hazards Info Series, 4, p. 1-15.
Latter, J.H., 1975, Note on inferred submarine eruption, Rumble No. 3 volcano: New Zealand Volc. Rec., 3: p. 58.
Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.
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