|Plate tectonic boundaries of the southwest Pacific. Volcanoes in New Zealand result from the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Indian-Australian Plate. The trench and subduction zone continues northeast from the North Island to the Kermadec Islands, Tonga, and Samoa. South of the North Island the tectonic boundary between the Indian-Australian an d Pacific plates changes to a transform fault. Modified from Johnson and others (1989).|
|Volcanic centers of New Zealand. New Zealand contains the world's highest concentration of youthful rhyolitic volcanoes and extensive sheets of pyroclastic flow deposits. New Zealand, along with Indonesia, leads the world in the abundance of calderas as primary volcanic features. Map modified from Nairn and Cole (1975).|
|Space Shuttle photo STS056-0098-0078. Looking northwest across the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Hawke Bay at bottom of photo. Lake Taupo is near top left. Lake Rotorua is near top right.|
|Tectonic setting of the Taupo and Coromandel volcanic zones and the central volcanic region of New Zealand. The Taupo Volcanic Zone (grays) is the currently active volcanic arc (darker gray) and back-arc basin (lighter gray). The back-arc basin is opening at a rate of 1.4 cm/yr. Rhyolite centers are: 1. Rotorua, 2. Okataina, 3. Maroa, 4. Taupo, 5. Tongariro, 6. Mangakino, 7. Waihi, 8. Wharekawa, 9. Kapawai. Simplified from Cole (1990).|
Simplified cross-section of the subduction zone beneath the central North Island of New Zealand. The Pacific Plate is subducted at a rate of about 5.0 cm/yr. Simplified from Cole (1990) after Smith and others (1989) and Walcott (1987).
General References about Volcanoes in New Zealand:
Cole, J.W., 1990, Structural control and origin of volcanism in the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 52, 445-459.
Cole, J.W., Hochstein, M.P., Skinner, D.N.B., and Briggs, R.M., 1986, Tectonic setting of North Island Cenozoic volcanism (Tour Guide C1): New Zealand Geological Survey Rec, 11, p. 5-60.
Graham, I.J., Cole, J.W. Briggs, R.M. Gamble, J.A. & Smith, I.E.M. 1995. Petrology and Petrogenesis of Volcanic rocks from Taupo Volcanic Zone: A general overview. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 68 59-88.
Gregory, J.G., and Watters, W.A., eds., 1986, Volcanic hazards assessment in New Zealand; New Zealand Geological Survey Record 10, 104 p.
Houghton, B.F., and Weaver, S.D., eds., 1986, Taupo Volcanic Zone; Tour Guides C1, C4, C5, and Autobreccia; and North island Volcanism; Tour Guides Andesite, A4, and C3; New Zealand Geological Survey records 11-12, 212 and 138 p.
Houghton, B.F., McPhie, J., and Simmons, S., 1994, Physical volcanology and modern geothermal systems; Field Guide 1 North Island, New Zealand: Masters of Economic Geology Course Work Manual 8, Centre for Ore Deposit and Exploration Studies (CODES), Unive rsity of Tasmania.
Johnson, R.W., Knutson, J., Taylor, S.R., eds., 1989, Intraplate volcanism in eastern Australia and New Zealand: Cambridge, England, Cambridge University press, 408 p.
Nairn, I.A., and Cole, J.W., 1975, Part XXII, New Zealand: Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world including solfatara fields, International Association of Volcanology, Rome, Italy, 156 p.
Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.
Smith, I.E.M., 1986, ed., Late Cenozoic Volcanism in New Zealand; Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin 23, 371 p.
Smith, E.G.C., Stern, T., and Reyners, M., 1989, Subduction and back-arc activity at the Hikurangi convergent margin, New Zealand: Pure Applied geophysics, v. 129, p. 203-231.
Walcott, R.I., 1987, Geodetic strain and the deformational history of the North island during the late Cainozoic: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, A321, p. 163-181.
Williams, K., 1994, Volcanoes of the Southwind: A field guide to the volcanoes and landscape of Tongariro National Park: Tongariro Natural History Society, 132 p.
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