Mount Gambier, a volcanic complex of maar volcanoes, formed about 4,900 years ago making it the youngest group of volcanoes on the continent of Australia. This photo shows Valley Lake Crater, a maar volcano. Lava flows and scoria cones are rare in the volcanic complex. Photograph by C. Ollier.
Eruptions were phreatic, explosions caused by the interaction of magma and groundwater.
Mount Gambier craters. Photograph by C. Ollier.
Sources of Information:
Lorenz, V., 1986, On the growth of maars and diatremes and its relevance to the formation of tuff rings: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 48, p. 265-274.
Nicholls, I.A., Greig, A.G., Gray, C.M., and Price, R.C., 1993, IAVCEI Canberra 1993 excursion guide Newer Volcanics Province - basalts, xenoliths and megcrysts: Australian geologic Survey Organization Record, 1993/58, 48 p.
Sheard, M.J., 1983, Volcanoes of the Mount Gambier area: South Australia Department of Mines and Energy, Mineral Information Series, 12 p.
Sheard, M.J., 1978, Geological history of the Mount gambier volcanic complex, southeast South Australia: Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, v. 102, p. 125-139.
Sutherland, L., 1995, The Volcanic Earth: Sydney, University of New South Wales Press, 248 p.
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