Unnamed, Agua de Pau, Furnas, and Monaco Bank, San Miguel Island, Azores

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The volcanoes of San Miguel Island and nearby waters based on van Padang and others (1967).

This Space Shuttle photo looks across the Island of Sao Miguel. The caldera of Sete Cidades is visible on the west end of the island (left side in photo). The caldera of Agua de Pau is visible near the center of the island. Space Shuttle photo STS41G-0034-0100.

Unnamed, San Miguel, Azores

Location: 37.8N, 25.7W
Elevation: 1,148 feet (350 m)

This unnamed group of pyroclastic cones had a single historic eruption in 1652. The eruption was explosive (VEI=2) and accompanied by lava flows.

Agua de Pau, San Miguel, Azores

Location: 37.8N, 25.5W
Elevation: 3,106 feet (947 m)

Agua de Pau, a stratovolcano with a caldera, erupted in 1563 and 1564. The 1563 eruption was at the Cerro Qurimado vent on the northwest flank of the caldera. The eruption lasted almost a month and was initailly Plinian and later produced lava flows that caused some damage. The 1564 eruption lasted only two days and was near Lagoa do Fogo caldera. It may have been a phreatic eruption. Thick pumice deposits on the flank of the volcano are probably the result of caldera-forming eruptions.

Furnas, San Miguel, Azores

Location: 37.8N, 25.3W
Elevation: 2,640 feet (805 m)

Furnas is a stratovolcano with a large summit caldera about 4 miles (6 km) in diameter and 1,000-1,200 feet (300-400 m) deep. There is a beautiful lake on the west side of the caldera. There is a solfatara on the east side of the caldera. The only historic eruption of Furnas was in 1630. It lasted about a week and was on the south rim of the caldera, at the Pico de Areia vent. This large (VEI=4) violent, pumice-forming explosive eruption was probably Vulcanian in type. The eruption formed a lava dome and produced pyroclastic flows. Ejecta fell over most of the island. More than 200 fatalities were caused by mudflows. The Povoacao caldera is extinct.

Monaco Bank, Azores

Location: 37.6N, 25.9W
Elevation: -646 feet (-197 m)

The submarine volcano at Monaco Bank has erupted in 1907 and 1911.

Sources of Information:

Booth, B., Croasdale, R., and Walker, G.P.L., 1978, A quantitative study of five thousand years of volcanism on Sao Miguel, Azores: Phil. Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, v. 288, p. 271-319.

Martin, J.A., 1982, Excursion guide for field trip V1, Islands of Sao Miguel: Proceedings International Symposium Activity Oceanic Volcanoes, Archipelago University Azores, 3: p. 315-328.

Moore, R.B., 1983, Preliminary geologic map of Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 83-395.

Moore, R.B., 1986, Preliminary geologic map of Agua de Pau volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 86-192.

Moore, R.B., 1990, Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, Sao Miguel, Azores: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 52, p. 602-614.

Neumann van Padang, M., Richards, A.F., Machado, F., Bravo, T., Baker, E., Le Maitre, W., 1967, Part XXI, Atlantic Ocean: Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world, International Association of Volcanology, Rome, Italy, 128 p.

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.

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