The rifted volcanic isle of Makian, south of Ternate. March 1995 - Photograph copyrighted and provided by Dan Olberg, Senior Geologist, PT Nusa Halmahera Minerals.
Makian is a stratovolcano that forms a small volcanic island. Four of the volcanoes eight historic eruptions have caused fatalities. Five of the eruptions were moderate-large to large (VEI=3-4). A major explosive eruption in 1646 devastated villages on the flank of the volcano. In 1760, another major explosive eruption killed about 2,000 people, possibly by lahars. In 1861, 326 people were killed, most by pyroclastic flows, but some drowned as they tried to escape. Earthquakes at Makian in 1972 were tectonic, not volcanic in origin. The most recent eruption was in 1988.
Looking east to Makian volcano and the lower peninsula of Halmahera. Space Shuttle photo (STS067-0718-0087) taken on 10 March 1995.
Sources of Information:
Carlile, J.C., Davey, G.R., Kadir, I., Langmead, R.P., and Rafferty, W.J., 1998, Discovery and exploration of the Gosowong epithermal gold deposit, Halmahera, Indonesia: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 60, p. 207-227.
Kusumadinata, K., 1977, Data on the Dukono volcano; Berita Direktorat Geologi, v. 9, no. 16, p. 183.
McClelland, L., Simkin, T., Summers, M., Nielsen, E., and Stein, T.C., 1989, Global Volcanism 1975-1985: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 655 p.
Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.
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