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Volcanic Gases: Average Compositions and Minor or Trace Gases
Gas Compositions and Tectonic Setting
Gases: Man versus the Volcanoes
Volcanic Gases and the Origin of the Atmosphere
Global Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions
Some Important Eruptions
Deadly Gases
Dead Dinosaurs and Gas
Measuring Volcanic Gases
Quiz on Volcanic Gases
References on Volcanic Gases
Other Sources of Volcanic Gas Information

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1. Volcanoes release mostly:

nitrogen, oxygen, and

methane, ammonia, and chlorine

mercury, carbon monoxide, and gold

water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

2. Which statement is true:

All of our atmospheric "problems" would go away if volcanoes would just stop erupting.

Volcanic gases have no effect on ozone.

Some large eruptions cool the Earth for short periods.

The composition of the atmosphere has been constant throughout earth history.

3. Global warming is primarily cause by:

burning fossil fuels


the El Nino phenomenon

long filibusters in Congress

4. Volcanic gases can be measured:

by hand using samples collected in a Giggenbach bottle

by using a COSPEC on the ground or in a plane

by satellite using TOMS

by instruments carried through aerosol layers

all of the above.

5. Hazards associated with volcanic gas include:


crop failure

death of livestock due to eating fluorine contaminated gas

all of the above.

6. After the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, the amount of ozone near the volcanic plume:



remained the same.

7. The amount of sulfur dioxide released by volcanoes is:

greater than man-made sources

about the same as man-made sources

less than man-made sources

8. The greatest damage to the ozone layer is done by:


man-made sources, mostly chlorofluorocarbons

sea salt

none of the above

9. Large historic eruptions have caused average global cooling of:

less than 1 degree C

between 0.5 and 1 degree C

about 5 degrees C

about 10 degrees C

10. The greatest amount of global cooling was probably caused by the eruption of:

Mount. St. Helens



Deccan Traps

El Jeremy

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