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Because volatiles play an important role in the generation, evolution and eruption of magma, it is critical that we use various tools to monitor gases both within and emitted from a volcano. Advanced analytical techniques have been employed for measuring dissolved volatiles in volcanic rocks and in remote sensing technology used for analyzing volcanic emissions. These advancements have led to our most recent understanding of volatiles fluxes from volcanic eruptions.
There are three primary ways that gas geochemists collect data
1.) Measuring Dissolved Volatiles in Rocks/Minerals/Inclusions
2.) Direct Sampling
3.) Remote Sensing
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, erupts; image courtesy of NASA