OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

Largest Eruptions since 1400 AD

 

Modified from Table 3 in Newhall, CG, and S Self, 1982, The volcanic explosivity index (VEI): An estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism: Journal of Geophysical Research87, 1231-1238.  Additional eruptions added from tree ring data reported in Table 2 of Briffa, KR, PD Jones, FH Schweingruber & TJ Osborn, 1998, Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years: Nature 393, 450-455.  Note that other large eruptions occurred during the last 600 years, according to tree ring and ice core data, but are not indicated here because the source volcano is unknown (e.g. 1809).

 

Volcano  Country  Date  VEI  Type of Volcano 
Aniakchak  USA-AK  1450C 5?  Caldera 
Kuwae  Vanuatu, SW Pac. 1452  6 Caldera
Sakurajima Japan 1471 5? Stratovolcano
Bardarbunga Iceland 1477 5? Stratovolcano
St. Helens USA-WA 1480D 5+ Stratovolcano
St Helens USA-WA 1482D 5 Stratovolcano
St. Helens USA-WA 1540 5 Stratovolcano
Billy Mitchell Bougainville, SW Pac 1580C 6 Ash shield
Kelut Indonesia-Java 1586 5? Stratovolcano
Raung Indonesia-Java 1593 5? Stratovolcano
Huaynaputina Peru 1600 6? Explosion crater?
Kamaga-Take Japan 1640 5 Stratovolcano
Parker Philippines Jan. 4, 1641 Stratovolcano
Long Island New Guinea 1660 6 Complex volcano
Usu Japan  Aug. 16,1663  Stratovolcano 
Tarumai Japan Aug. 6, 1667 5 Stratovolcano
Gamkonora Indonesia-Halmahara 1673 5? Stratovolcano
Tongkoko  Indonesia-Sulawesi  1680  5? Stratovolcano 
Tarumai  Japan  Aug., 1739  Stratovolcano 
Katla  Iceland  Oct. 17, 1755  Subglacial 
Tambora  Indonesia  April 5, 1815  Stratovolcano 
Galunggung  Indonesia  Oct. 8, 1822  5?  Stratovolcano 
Cosiguina  Nicaragua  June 20, 1835  Stratovolcano 
Sheveluch  Russia  Feb. 17, 1854  Stratovolcano 
Askja  Iceland  March 29, 1875  Stratovolcano 
Krakatau  Indonesia  Aug. 26, 1883  Caldera 
Tarawera  New Zealand  June 10, 1886  Fissure on lava dome 
Santa Maria  Guatemala  Oct., 24, 1902  Stratovolcano 
Ksudach  Russia  March 28, 1907  Shield 
Katmai  USA  June 6, 1911  Stratovolcano 
Cerro Azul  Chile  April 10, 1932  Stratovolcano 
Bezymianny  Russia  March 30, 1956  Stratovolcano 
St. Helens USA 18-May-80 5 Stratovolcano