Glossary beginning with P

Volcano Term Definitions

Pahoehoesearch for term

A Hawaiian term for lava with a smooth, billowy, or ropy surface.

Palisearch for term

Hawaiian word for steep hills or cliffs.

Pele Hairsearch for term

A natural spun glass formed by blowing-out during quiet fountaining of fluid lava, cascading lava falls, or turbulent flows, sometimes in association with pele tears. A single strand, with a diameter of less than half a millimeter, may be as long as two meters.

Pele Tearssearch for term

Small, solidified drops of volcanic glass behind which trail pendants of Pele hair. They may be tear-shaped, spherical, or nearly cylindrical.

Peralkalinesearch for term

Igneous rocks in which the molecular proportion of aluminum oxide is less than that of sodium and potassium oxides combined.

Phenocrystsearch for term

A conspicuous, usually large, crystal embedded in porphyritic igneous rock.

Phreatic Eruptionsearch for term

An explosive volcanic eruption caused when water and heated volcanic rocks interact to produce a violent expulsion of steam and pulverized rocks. Magma is not involved.

Phreatomagmaticsearch for term

An explosive volcanic eruption that results from the interaction of surface or subsurface water and magma.

Pillow lavasearch for term

Interconnected, sack-like bodies of lava formed underwater.

Pipesearch for term

A vertical conduit through the Earth's crust below a volcano, through which magmatic materials have passed. Commonly filled with volcanic breccia and fragments of older rock.

Pit Cratersearch for term

A crater formed by sinking in of the surface, not primarily a vent for lava.

Plasticsearch for term

Capable of being molded into any form, which is retained.

Plate Tectonicssearch for term

The theory that the earth's crust is broken into about 10 fragments (plates,) which move in relation to one another, shifting continents, forming new ocean crust, and stimulating volcanic eruptions.

Pleistocenesearch for term

A epoch in Earth history from about 2-5 million years to 10,000 years ago. Also refers to the rocks and sediment deposited in that epoch.

Pliniansearch for term

An explosive eruption in which a steady, turbulent stream of fragmented magma and magmatic gases is released at a high velocity from a vent. Large volumes of tephra and tall eruption columns are characteristic.

Plugsearch for term

Solidified lava that fills the conduit of a volcano. It is usually more resistant to erosion than the material making up the surrounding cone, and may remain standing as a solitary pinnacle when the rest of the original structure has eroded away.

Plug Domesearch for term

The steep-sided, rounded mound formed when viscous lava wells up into a crater and is too stiff to flow away. It piles up as a dome-shaped mass, often completely filling the vent from which it emerged.

Plutonsearch for term

A large igneous intrusion formed at great depth in the crust.

Polygeneticsearch for term

Originating in various ways or from various sources.

Precambriansearch for term

All geologic time from the beginning of Earth history to 570 million years ago. Also refers to the rocks that formed in that epoch.

Pumicesearch for term

Light-colored, frothy volcanic rock, usually of dacite or rhyolite composition, formed by the expansion of gas in erupting lava. Commonly seen as lumps or fragments of pea-size and larger, but can also occur abundantly as ash-sized particles.

Pyroclasticsearch for term

Pertaining to fragmented (clastic) rock material formed by a volcanic explosion or ejection from a volcanic vent.

Pyroclastic Flowsearch for term

Lateral flowage of a turbulent mixture of hot gases and unsorted pyroclastic material (volcanic fragments, crystals, ash, pumice, and glass shards) that can move at high speed (50 to 100 miles an hour.) The term also can refer to the deposit so formed.