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Volcano Term Definitions
A Hawaiian term for lava with a smooth, billowy, or ropy surface.
Hawaiian word for steep hills or cliffs.
A natural spun glass formed by blowing-out during quiet fountaining of fluid lava, cascading lava falls, or turbulent flows, sometimes in association with pele tears. A single strand, with a diameter of less than half a millimeter, may be as long as two meters.
Small, solidified drops of volcanic glass behind which trail pendants of Pele hair. They may be tear-shaped, spherical, or nearly cylindrical.
Igneous rocks in which the molecular proportion of aluminum oxide is less than that of sodium and potassium oxides combined.
A conspicuous, usually large, crystal embedded in porphyritic igneous rock.
Interconnected, sack-like bodies of lava formed underwater.
Capable of being molded into any form, which is retained.
The theory that the earth's crust is broken into about 10 fragments (plates,) which move in relation to one another, shifting continents, forming new ocean crust, and stimulating volcanic eruptions.
A epoch in Earth history from about 2-5 million years to 10,000 years ago. Also refers to the rocks and sediment deposited in that epoch.
An explosive eruption in which a steady, turbulent stream of fragmented magma and magmatic gases is released at a high velocity from a vent. Large volumes of tephra and tall eruption columns are characteristic.
Solidified lava that fills the conduit of a volcano. It is usually more resistant to erosion than the material making up the surrounding cone, and may remain standing as a solitary pinnacle when the rest of the original structure has eroded away.
The steep-sided, rounded mound formed when viscous lava wells up into a crater and is too stiff to flow away. It piles up as a dome-shaped mass, often completely filling the vent from which it emerged.
A large igneous intrusion formed at great depth in the crust.
Originating in various ways or from various sources.
All geologic time from the beginning of Earth history to 570 million years ago. Also refers to the rocks that formed in that epoch.
Light-colored, frothy volcanic rock, usually of dacite or rhyolite composition, formed by the expansion of gas in erupting lava. Commonly seen as lumps or fragments of pea-size and larger, but can also occur abundantly as ash-sized particles.
Pertaining to fragmented (clastic) rock material formed by a volcanic explosion or ejection from a volcanic vent.
Lateral flowage of a turbulent mixture of hot gases and unsorted pyroclastic material (volcanic fragments, crystals, ash, pumice, and glass shards) that can move at high speed (50 to 100 miles an hour.) The term also can refer to the deposit so formed.