Glossary beginning with A

Volcano Term Definitions

A'asearch for term

Hawaiian word used to describe a lava flow whose surface is broken into rough angular fragments.

Accessorysearch for term

A mineral whose presence in a rock is not essential to the proper classification of the rock.

Accidentalsearch for term

Pyroclastic rocks that are formed from fragments of non-volcanic rocks or from volcanic rocks not related to the erupting volcano.

Accretionary Lava Ballsearch for term

A rounded mass, ranging in diameter from a few centimeters to several meters, [carried] on the surface of a lava flow (e.g., 'a'a) or on cinder-cone slopes [and formed] by the molding of viscous lava around a core of already solidified lava.

Acidsearch for term

A descriptive term applied to igneous rocks with more than 60% silica (SiO2).

Active Volcanosearch for term

A volcano that is erupting. Also, a volcano that is not presently erupting, but that has erupted within historical time and is considered likely to do so in the future.

Agglutinatesearch for term

A pyroclastic deposit consisting of an accumulation of originally plastic ejecta and formed by the coherence of the fragments upon solidification.

Alkalicsearch for term

Rocks which contain above average amounts of sodium and/or potassium for the group of rocks for which it belongs. For example, the basalts of the capping stage of Hawaiian volcanoes are alkalic. They contain more sodium and/or potassium than the shield-building basalts that make the bulk of the volcano.

Andesitesearch for term

Volcanic rock (or lava) characteristically medium dark in color and containing 54 to 62 percent silica and moderate amounts of iron and magnesium.

Aquifersearch for term

A body of rock that contains significant quantities of water that can be tapped by wells or springs.

Ashsearch for term

Fine particles of pulverized rock blown from an explosion vent. Measuring less than 1/10 inch in diameter, ash may be either solid or molten when first erupted. By far the most common variety is vitric ash (glassy particles formed by gas bubbles bursting through liquid magma).

Ash Flowsearch for term

A turbulent mixture of gas and rock fragments, most of which are ash-sized particles, ejected violently from a crater or fissure. The mass of pyroclastics is normally of very high temperature and moves rapidly down the slopes or even along a level surface.

Ashfallsearch for term

Volcanic ash that has fallen through the air from an eruption cloud. A deposit so formed is usually well sorted and layered.

Asthenospheresearch for term

The shell within the earth, some tens of kilometers below the surface and of undefined thickness, which is a shell of weakness where plastic movements take place to permit pressure adjustments.

Avalanchesearch for term

A large mass of material or mixtures of material falling or sliding rapidly under the force of gravity. Avalanches often are classified by their content, such as snow, ice, soil, or rock avalanches. A mixture of these materials is a debris avalanche.