Kohala volcano viewed from the north. Note that the original volcano surface (outlined by the dashed white line) is well-preserved in the highlands. Stream capture has allowed Waipi'o and Waimanu valleys to become huge at the expense of their neighbors, and Waipi'o has captured the headwaters of the left-hand branch of Waimanu. The green arrow indicates a "wind gap" between the two large valleys. The dotted yellow line roughly corresponds to the extent of (younger) Mauna Kea Lavas, and the town of Waimea is in the middle distance. Kohala last erupted ~60,000 years ago.