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Dubbi is a tall stratovolcano rising near the coast of the Red Sea (top of image). The volcano is also called Edd, Gebel Dubbey, and Djebel Dubbeh. There are at least 19 craters near the top of the volcano with the largest being roughly 100 x 50 m. The upper slopes are covered in ash, lapilli, and lava flows. Some flows extend down to the sea. The lower slopes are rocky. Dubbi erupted in 1400 and 1861. Eruptions are suspected in 1863 and 1900 but not confirmed.
The 1861 eruption was explosive and also produced lava flows. Ash fell as far as 180 miles (300 km) from the volcano. The eruption caused damage and 105 fatalities as two villages were destroyed. Large herds of cattle were also killed. Weirt and Oppenheimer presented a reconstruction of this unusual explosive and effusive eruption sequence based on interpretation of contemporary accounts, analysis of satellite imagery, field work, and laboratory geochemistry. According to their findings, the volume of lava flows alone, 3.5 km3, makes this the largest reported historical eruption in Africa. An anomalously cold Northern Hemisphere summer in 1862, recorded in tree-ring records, could be the result of Dubbi's sulfate aerosol veil.
Wiart P.A.M., Oppenheimer C, and Francis, P., 2000, Eruptive history of Dubbi volcano, northeast Afar (Eritrea), revealed by optical and SAR image interpretation, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 911-936.
Wiart, P.A.M., and Oppenheimer, C., 2000, Largest known historic eruption in Africa: Dubbi volcano, Eritrea, 1861, Geology, 28, 291-294.
Richard, J.J., and Neumann van Padang, M., 1957, Africa and the Red Sea: Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world, International Association of Volcanology 4, Rome, Italy, 118 p.
Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.