Curious how to say volcano in Chinese? Want to know which volcanoes are the largest? Deadliest? How much they cost? How much volcanic material is produced every year? You've come to the right place!! Use the links on the right to navigate!
How much does an eruption cost the government, private companies, and local residents? Here are a couple of estimates for the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens and the 1955 eruption of Kilauea. Plus the total cost for the current eruption of Kilauea and the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt. It's a good thing we spend money on something called "volcano monitoring..."
Major Losses from the May 18, 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens.
|Percent of total||53.0||33.1||7.3||6.1||--||--|
In millions of dollars.
From Washington State Department of Commerce and Economic development Research Division.
Note: Smart's Insurance Bulletin, May 18, 1981 reported over 40,000 insurance claims were filed, 166 recovery loans were applied for and $215 million was spent on dredging rivers as of fall, 1981.
Losses from the 1955 Lava Flows from Kilauea, Hawaii.
|Land (3,000 acres)||600,000|
|10,670,40 tons of sugar at $116.25 per ton||$1,240,434|
|Molasses at $10.00 per ton||26,676|
|Fruits and vegetables||180,103|
|Olaa Sugar Co. roads (replacement costs)||23,250|
|Planter's roads (replacement costs)||10,700|
|Federal Aid Roads||52,000|
|Country roads (replacement costs)||212,250|
Cost is in 1955 dollars.
From Murton and Shimabukuro, 1972, Human Adjustment to Volcanic Hazard in Pun a District, Hawaii.
Losses from the 1983-1991 Lava Flows from Kilauea, Hawaii.
The current eruption has destroyed 181 residences (16 from 1983-1986, 165 from 1986-1991). Other structures lost include the Wahaula Visitor center and maintanence shop, Royal Gardens community center, Mauna Kea Congregational Church, Puna Canoe Club halau, and the Kalapana Drive-In. Total losses: $61 million. Information courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
Losses from the 1989-1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska.
The total economic cost of the 1989-1990 eruptions of Redoubt is estimated at over $160 million. Costs to the aviation industry was over $101 million.
Sources of Information:
Tuck, H.B., Huckey, L., and Talbot, L., 1992, The economic consequences of the 1989-1990 Mt. Redoubt eruptions: University of Alaska, Anchorage, Institute of Social and Economic Research, [unpub. report prepared for the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Volcano Observatory], 39 p.
Tuck, H.B., and Huckey, L., 1994, Economic disruption bt Redoubt volcano: Assessment methodology and anecdotal empirical evidence: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2047, p. 137-140.
The list below contains eruptions with more than 500 known human fatalities.
These are the most deadly eruptions known. Other eruptions have been as big or bigger than these, but no one lived nearby to be threatened (for example the Valley of 10,000 Smokes eruption in Alaska in 1912). The Mt. St. Helens eruption in 1980 in Washington state was a far less dangerous eruption than these, only 61 humans died, although thousands of deer and other animals perished. The ancient eruption at Santorini Island in the Mediterranean Sea in about 1650 BC certainly killed thousands of people (and was the source of the Atlantis legend), but there are no real estimates of the number of deaths. Remember that all of the numbers of deaths listed here are best guesses; various books give different numbers. This list is based on data in Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions by Russell J. Blong (Academic Press, 1984).
|Deaths||Volcano||When||Major Cause of Death|
|29,025||Mt. Pelee, Martinique||1902||Ash flows|
|14,300||Unzen, Japan||1792||Volcano collapse, tsunami|
|3,500||Vesuvius, Italy||1631||Mudflows, lava flows|
|3,360||Vesuvius, Italy||79||Ash flows and falls|
|2,957||Papandayan, Indonesia||1772||Ash flows|
|2,942||Lamington, Papua N.G.||1951||Ash flows|
|2,000||El Chichon, Mexico||1982||Ash flows|
|1,680||Soufriere, St Vincent||1902||Ash flows|
|1,377||Asama, Japan||1783||Ash flows, mudflows|
|1,335||Taal, Philippines||1911||Ash flows|
|1,184||Agung, Indonesia||1963||Ash flows|
|800||Pinatubo, Philippines||1991||Roof collapses and disease|
This bar graph shows the number of deaths in each volcanic region from 1600 to 1982. The total number of deaths was 238,867.
Based on Table 3.1 of Blong, R.J., 1984, Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions: Orlando, Florida, Academic Press, 424 p.
How much volcanic material is produced every year?
Here's a few estimates.
Andesite and Dacite Volcanoes
Augustine (1976): 11.6 m3/sec
Usu (1910): 3.5 m3/sec
Bezymianny (1955-1957): 1.8 m3/sec
Santorini (1866-1870): 0.7 m3/sec
Mount St. Helens (1980-present): 0.5 m3/sec
Colima (1975-1976): 0.05 m3/sec
From Table 4.2 of Cas and Wright (1987).
The eruption rates for 14 composite cones ranged from 0.5 km3/1,000 years to 27.5 km3/1,000 years.
The current eruption rate of basalt at Kilauea is about 0.1 cubic km per year. That's high relative to the entire volcanic chain which was created by rates of <0.01 to 0.06 cubic km per year over the last 70 million years. High rates occurred 18, 48, and 58 million years ago. The lowest rates were from about 30-36 million years ago.
The eruption rates for the Puu Oo lava fountains ranged from 17 to 367 m3/sec (0.05 to 1.15 cubic km per year).
The Laki and Grimsvotn eruptions (1783-1785) had an average rate of 2,300 m3/sec (7.25 cubic km per year).
Nyamuragira (1901-1977): 0.4 m3/sec.
Vesuvio (1750-1900): 1.9 m3/sec.
Kilauea (1952-1971): 3.5 m3/sec.
Merapi (1890-1992): 0.04 m3/sec.
From Table 2 in Siswowidjoyo and others (1995).
Monogenetic Volcanic Fields
Michoacan-Guanajuato field: 0.8 km3/1,000 years.
Area near Paricutin: 1.2 km3/1,000 years.
Sources of Information:
Volcanic Successions Modern and Ancient; 1987; Cas, R.A.F., and Wright, J.V.; Allen & Unwin; London, UK; 528 p. del Marmol, M. and Marsh, B., 1994, Merapi volcano, central Java: source rocks and prediction of the eruptive behavior of the volcano: AGU abstracts, p. 731.
Hasenaka, T., and Carmichael, I.S.E., 1985, The cinder cones at Michoacan-Guanajuato, Central Mexico: their age, volume, and distribiution, and magma discharge rate: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 25, p. 105-124.
Hasenaka, T., 1994, Size, distribution, and magma output rate for shield volcanoes of the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Central Mexico: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 63, p. 13-31.
Parfitt, E.A., Wilson, L., and Neal, C.A., 1995, Factors influencing the height of Hawaiian lava fountains: implications for the use of fountain height as an indicator of magma gas content: Bull. Volcanology, v. 57, p. 440-450.
Purbawinata, M.A., Ratdomopurbo, A., Sinulingga, I.K., Sumarti, S., Suharno, 1996, Merapi volcano a guide book: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, Bandung, 64 p.
Siswowidjoyo, S., Suryo, I., and Yokoyama, I., 1995, Magma eruption rates of Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia during one century (1890-1992): Bull. Of Volcanology, v. 55, p. 233-263.
Shaw, H.R., 1987, Uniqueness of volcanic systems: in Decker, R.W., Wright, T.L., and Stauffer, P.H., (eds.), Volcanism in Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1350, v. 1, p. 1357-1394. Thordarson, Th, and Self, S., 1993, The Laki (Skaftar Fires) and Grimsvotn eruptions in 1783-1785: Bull. Of Volcanology, v. 55, p. 233-263.
Every year about 60 volcanoes erupt, but most of the activity is pretty weak. How do volcanologists measure how big an eruption is? There is not any single feature that determines the "bigness", but the following eruption magnitude scale - called the Volcanic Explosivity Index or VEI - is based on a number of things that can be observed during an eruption. According to this scale, really huge eruptions don't happen very often, luckily!
|VEI||Description||Plume Height||Volume||Classification||How often||Example|
|0||non-explosive||< 100 m||1000s m3||Hawaiian||daily||Kilauea|
|1||gentle||100-1000 m||10,000s m3||Haw/Strombolian||daily||Stromboli|
|2||explosive||1-5 km||1,000,000s m3||Strom/Vulcanian||weekly||Galeras, 1992|
|3||severe||3-15 km||10,000,000s m3||Vulcanian||yearly||Ruiz, 1985|
|4||cataclysmic||10-25 km||100,000,000s m3||Vulc/Plinian||10's of years||Galunggung, 1982|
|5||paroxysmal||>25 km||1 km3||Plinian||100's of years||St. Helens, 1980|
|6||colossal||>25 km||10s km3||Plin/Ultra-Plinian||100's of years||Krakatau, 1883|
|7||super-colossal||>25 km||100s km3||Ultra-Plinian||1000's of years||Tambora, 1815|
|8||mega-colossal||>25 km||1,000s km3||Ultra-Plinian||10,000's of years||Yellowstone, 2 Ma|
Modified from Table 3 in Newhall, CG, and S Self, 1982, The volcanic explosivity index (VEI): An estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism: Journal of Geophysical Research87, 1231-1238. Additional eruptions added from tree ring data reported in Table 2 of Briffa, KR, PD Jones, FH Schweingruber & TJ Osborn, 1998, Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years: Nature 393, 450-455. Note that other large eruptions occurred during the last 600 years, according to tree ring and ice core data, but are not indicated here because the source volcano is unknown (e.g. 1809).
|Volcano||Country||Date||VEI||Type of Volcano|
|Kuwae||Vanuatu, SW Pac.||1452||6||Caldera|
|Billy Mitchell||Bougainville, SW Pac||1580C||6||Ash shield|
|Parker||Philippines||Jan. 4, 1641||6||Stratovolcano|
|Long Island||New Guinea||1660||6||Complex volcano|
|Tarumai||Japan||Aug. 6, 1667||5||Stratovolcano|
|Katla||Iceland||Oct. 17, 1755||5||Subglacial|
|Tambora||Indonesia||April 5, 1815||7||Stratovolcano|
|Galunggung||Indonesia||Oct. 8, 1822||5?||Stratovolcano|
|Cosiguina||Nicaragua||June 20, 1835||5||Stratovolcano|
|Sheveluch||Russia||Feb. 17, 1854||5||Stratovolcano|
|Askja||Iceland||March 29, 1875||5||Stratovolcano|
|Krakatau||Indonesia||Aug. 26, 1883||6||Caldera|
|Tarawera||New Zealand||June 10, 1886||5||Fissure on lava dome|
|Santa Maria||Guatemala||Oct., 24, 1902||6||Stratovolcano|
|Ksudach||Russia||March 28, 1907||5||Shield|
|Katmai||USA||June 6, 1911||6||Stratovolcano|
|Cerro Azul||Chile||April 10, 1932||5||Stratovolcano|
|Bezymianny||Russia||March 30, 1956||5||Stratovolcano|
|Welsh:||llosgfynydd and folcano|