Earth Science Lessons

The following are Earth Science lessons, geared toward and tested by 5-8 grade students.

Many chapters have activities, questions and answers, and resources that can be used by teachers.

 

There are a total of five chapters:

Chapter 1: Plate Tectonics

Chapter 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Chapter 3: Cones, Eruptions, and Pyroclasts

Chapter 4: Rocks and Minerals

Chapter 5: Prehistoric Earth

 

Choose from the selections on the right to proceed. 

Chapter 1 Plate Tectonics

Chapter 1 focuses on Plate Tectonics, looking at the Earth's layers, Earth's evolution, and plate movement.

Lessons included in this chapter:

#1 The Earth's Layers

#2 Pangea to Present

#3 How Earth's Plates Move

Resources for Teachers can be found under the Chapter #1 Copymaster.

Select from the options on the right to proceed.

The Earth's Layers Lesson #1

The Four Layers

The Earth is composed of four different layers. Many geologists believe that as the Earth cooled the heavier, denser materials sank to the center and the lighter materials rose to the top. Because of this, the crust is made of the lightest materials (rock- basalts and granites) and the core consists of heavy metals (nickel and iron).

 

The crust is the layer that you live on, and it is the most widely studied and understood. The mantle is much hotter and has the ability to flow. The Outer and Inner Cores are hotter still with pressures so great that you would be squeezed into a ball smaller than a marble if you were able to go to the center of the Earth!!!!!!

chapter1_picture2

 

 chapter1_picture3

The Crust

The Earth's Crust is like the skin of an apple. It is very thin in comparison to the other three layers. The crust is only about 3-5 miles (8 kilometers) thick under the oceans(oceanic crust) and about 25 miles (32 kilometers) thick under the continents (continental crust). The temperatures of the crust vary from air temperature on top to about 1600 degrees Fahrenheit (870 degrees Celcius) in the deepest parts of the crust. You can bake a loaf of bread in your oven at 350 degrees Fahrenheit , at 1600 degrees F. rocks begin to melt.

 

The crust of the Earth is broken into many pieces called plates. The plates "float" on the soft, plastic mantle which is located below the crust. These plates usually move along smoothly but sometimes they stick and build up pressure. The pressure builds and the rock bends until it snaps. When this occurs an Earthquake is the result!

 

Notice how thin the crust of the Earth is in comparison to the other layers. The seven continents and ocean plates basically float across the mantle which is composed of much hotter and denser material.

 

chapter1_picture4 


The crust is composed of two basic rock types granite and basalt. The continental crust is composed mostly of granite. The oceanic crust consists of a volcanic lava rock called basalt.

 

chapter1_picture5


Basaltic rocks of the ocean plates are much denser and heavier than the granitic rock of the continental plates. Because of this the continents ride on the denser oceanic plates. The crust and the upper layer of the mantle together make up a zone of rigid, brittle rock called the Lithosphere. The layer below the rigid lithosphere is a zone of asphalt-like consistancy called the Asthenosphere. The asthenosphere is the part of the mantle that flows and moves the plates of the Earth.

 

The Mantle

 

The mantle is the layer located directly under the sima. It is the largest layer of the Earth, 1800 miles thick. The mantle is composed of very hot, dense rock. This layer of rock even flows like asphalt under a heavy weight. This flow is due to great temperature differences from the bottom to the top of the mantle. The movement of the mantle is the reason that the plates of the Earth move! The temperature of the mantle varies from 1600 degrees Fahrenheit at the top to about 4000 degrees Fahrenheit near the bottom!

 

chapter1_picture6


Convection Currents

The mantle is made of much denser, thicker material, because of this the plates "float" on it like oil floats on water.

Many geologists believe that the mantle "flows" because of convection currents. Convection currents are caused by the very hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rising, then cooling, sinking again and then heating, rising and repeating the cycle over and over. The next time you heat anything like soup or pudding in a pan you can watch the convection currents move in the liquid. When the convection currents flow in the mantle they also move the crust. The crust gets a free ride with these currents. A conveyor belt in a factory moves boxes like the convection currents in the mantle moves the plates of the Earth.

 

chapter1_picture7


Outer Core

 

The core of the Earth is like a ball of very hot metals. (4000 degrees F. to 9000 degrees F.) The outer core is so hot that the metals in it are all in the liquid state. The outer core is located about 1800 milesbeneath the crust and is about 1400 miles thick. The outer core is composed of the melted metals nickel and iron.

 

chapter_picture8


Inner Core

 

The inner core of the Earth has temperatures and pressures so great that the metals are squeezed together and are not able to move about like a liquid, but are forced to vibrate in place as a solid. The inner core begins about 4000 miles beneath the crust and is about 800 miles thick. The temperatures may reach 9000 dgrees F. and the pressures are 45,000,000 pounds per square inch. This is 3,000,000 times the air pressure on you at sea level!!!

 

chapter_picture9 


Answer the following questions on a sheet of paper with your partner. If you need to look back to find the answers use the page titles located directly under the questions to help you. When you finish the questions click on the Earth icon to return the program to the beginning.

 

1. Name the four layers of the Earth in order from the outside to the center of the Earth.

2. What causes the mantle to "flow"?

3. What are the two main metals that make up the outer and inner core?

4. Describe in your own words how the Earth's layers were formed. "The Four Layers" will help you.

 

Pangaea to the Present Lesson #2

The Earth is a dynamic or constantly changing planet. The thin, fragile plates slide very slowly on the mantle's upper layer. This sliding of the plates is caused by the mantle's convection currents slowly turning over and over. This overturn is like a conveyor belt that moves the plates of the crust.

 

chapter2_picture2


These plates are in constant motion causing earthquakes, mountain building, volcanism, the production of "new" crust and the destruction of "old" crust. The following cards will teach you more about the Earth's plates.

 

The Earth's crust is broken into many pieces. These pieces are called plates. There are twelve main plates on the Earth's surface. The red lines on this map of the world represent the largest plate boundaries. A plate boundary occurs where two plates come together. There are three kinds of plate boundaries:

 

1. Convergent boundary -where two plates collide to form mountains or a subduction zone.

2. Divergent boundary -where two plates are moving in opposite directions as in a mid-ocean ridge.

3. Transform boundary -where two plates are sliding past each other as in the San Andreas fault of California.

 

The Earth's plates are in constant, but very, very slow motion. They move at only 1/2 to 4 inches (1.3 to 10 centimeters) per year!! This does not seem like much, but over millions of years it adds up to great distances of movement.

 

The Continental Drift Theory states that the continents have moved and are still moving today. In 1912 Alfred Wegener introduced this theory, but he did not fully understand what caused the plates to move. A theory is an explanation of a scientific process that has been successfully tested by many different methods.

 

The motion of the Earth's plates help scientists to understand why earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building occur.

You will learn more about why the plates are moving in the next lesson, "How Plates Move".

 

Scientists believe these plates have been moving for millions of years. In fact, 250 millions years ago the Earth's seven continents were all grouped together into a supercontinent called Pangea.

 

chapter2_picture3


Just before the days of the dinosaurs the Earth's continents were all connected into one huge landmass called Pangaea . This huge supercontinent was surrounded by one gigantic ocean called Panthalassa.

 

Notice the postion of the continents of Antarctica (Far north of its current position), Australia (flipped sideways and far west of its current position) and the subcontinent of India (Hundreds of miles from Asia).

 

chapter2_picture4 


Scientists believe that the North American continent was located much farther south and east of it's position today. In fact, much of North America was in or near the tropics!! How do scientists know this?? They have found fossils from this period of time. These fossils are of tropical plants and animals. The fossils have been found in cold regions like North Dakota and Greenland!!!

 

180 Million Years Ago

 

chapter2_picture5 


About 180 million years ago the supercontinent Pangea began to break up. Scientists believe that Pangea broke apart for the same reason that the plates are moving today. The movement is caused by the convection currents that roll over in the upper zone of the mantle. This movement in the mantle causes the plates to move slowly across the surface of the Earth. About 200 million years ago Pangaea broke into two new continents Laurasia and Gondwanaland. Laurasia was made of the present day continents of North America (Greenland), Europe, and Asia. Gondwanaland was made of the present day continents of Antarctica, Australia, South America. The subcontinent of India was also part of Gondwanaland. Notice that at this time India was not connected to Asia. The huge ocean of Panthalassa remained but the Atlantic Ocean was going to be born soon with the splitting of North America from the Eurasian Plate.

How do we know that South America was attached to Africa and not to North America 180 million years ago?

 

Scientists today can read the history of the rock record by studying the age and mineral content of the rocks in a certain area.

 

chapter2_picture6 


The Triple Junction was formed because of a three-way split in the crust allowing massive lava flows. The split was caused by an upwelling of magma that broke the crust in three directions and poured out lava over hundreds of square miles of Africa and South America.

 

The rocks of the triple junction, which today is the west central portion of Africa and the east central portion of South America, are identical matches for age and mineral make up. In other words the rocks in these areas of the two continents were produced at the same time and in the same place. This tells us that South America and Africa were connected at one time!

Today these two continents are separated by the Atlantic Ocean which is over 2000 miles wide!

 

135 Million Years Ago

 

chapter2_picture7 


About 135 million years ago Laurasia was still moving, and as it moved it broke up into the continents of North America, Europe and Asia (Eurasian plate). Gondwanaland also continued to spread apart and it broke up into the continents of Africa, Antarctica, Australia, South America, and the subcontinent of India. Arabia started to separate from Africa as the Red Sea opened up.

 

The red arrows indicate the direction of the continental movements. Notice how far the Indian subcontinent has to move to get to its present postion connected to Asia.

The Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans are all beginning to take shape as the continents move toward their present positions.

 

chapter2_picture8


The plates are still moving today making the Atlantic Ocean larger and the Pacific Ocean smaller. The yellow arrows on the world map indicate the direction of plates movements today.

Notice the position of the Indian Subcontinent today. It moved hundreds of miles in 135 million years at a great speed (4 inches per year!!!) The Indian plate crashed into the Eurasian plate with such speed and force that it created the tallest mountain range on Earth, the Himalayas! What do you predict the world will look like in 100 million or 200 million years? What new mountain ranges will form? Where will new volcanoes erupt?

 

chapter2_picture9


The Atlantic Ocean will be much larger 50 million years from now and the Pacific Ocean will be much smaller. North and South America will have moved farther west (California moving north) while Greenland will be located farther west but also farther north. The western part of Africa will rotate clockwise and crash into Europe causing great mountain building, while the far eastern region of Africa will rotate eastward toward the Arabian peninsula. Australia will move farther north into the tropics, while New Zealand will move to the south of Australia.


All of these predictions are just that, predictions. These movements of the continents may happen if the plates continue to move in the same direction and with the same speed as they are moving today. Scientists are not certain of the movement today, let alone 50 million years into the future.

What do you think the world will look like in 50 million years???

 

Write the answers for the questions on a sheet of paper. When you finish the lesson click on the "Earth" icon so that the next pair of students will be at the start of the lesson.

 

1. What caused Pangea to break up?

2. What is the Continental Drift Theory?

3. What happened at the Triple Junction? Where is it located today?

How Earth's Plates Move Lesson #3

lesson3_picture2

 

Geologists came to the conclusion in the 1960's that the Earth's rigid outer layer (crust and outer, rigid layer of the mantle) was not a single piece, but was broken up into about 12 large pieces called plates. The red lines on the map of the world above indicate

 

1. Convergent boundaries - two plates collide to form mountains or a subduction zone.

2. Divergent boundary - two plates are moving in opposite directions as in a mid-ocean ridge.

3. Transform boundary - two plates are sliding past each other as in the San Andreas fault of California. A transform boundary is like a tear in the Earth's crust. These plates move very slowly across the surface of the Earth as though they were on a conveyor belt. The convection currents in the much hotter mantle continually move the plates about 1/2 to 4 inches per year.

 

When the plates move they collide or spread apart allowing the very hot molten material called lava to escape from the mantle. When collisions occur they produce mountains, deep underwater valleys called trenches, and volcanoes. As mountains and valleys are being formed natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic activity can occur which has affected humans for thousands of years.

 

lesson3_picture3


The Earth is producing "new" crust where two plates are diverging or spreading apart. This occurs in the middle of our great oceans. The mid-ocean ridges are the longest continually running mountain range in the world. These ridges are connected and are about 40,000 miles long!!

 

One of these mid-ocean ridges, the Mid-Atlantic ridge , is spreading apart making the Atlantic Ocean wider. As the two plates move the mantle melts, making magma and lava fill the void with newly formed rock. The bottom of the Atlantic Ocean is filled with some of the "youngest" crust on Earth. The island of Iceland, located in the North Atlantic, is still being formed at this Mid-Atlantic ridge.

 

The Atlantic Ocean is getting larger as the Western Hemisphere moves away from Europe and Asia. The Pacific Ocean, on the other hand, is becoming smaller and smaller. This is occurring because the North American and South American plates are moving westward toward Asia and Australia.


 lesson3_picture4

 

The North and South American plates are crashing into the thinner and denser oceanic plates of the Pacific. This drives the oceanic plates deep into the mantle destroying the oceanic plates. This boundary in which an oceanic plate is driven down and destroyed by a continental plate is called a subduction zone.

This Pacific Ocean region has more earthquakes and volcanic activity than any other area of the world. Because of all the volcanoes this region has been given the nickname of "The Ring of Fire" .

 

lesson3_picture5


When the less dense, lighter continental plate overrides the oceanic plate a subduction zone forms. Because the oceanic plate is bent and driven down, a deep trench forms at this collison point. These trenches are the lowest points on the Earth's crust. One trench is a mile deeper than Mount Everest is tall!

 

As the oceanic plate descends into the mantle some of it melts. This material moves into the mantle above the plate and causes the mantle to melt. This liquid rock, called magma, rises to the surface because it is less dense then the surrounding rock. If the magma reaches the surface of the Earth, a volcano forms.

 

lesson3_picture6

 

As the mantle rocks melt they form magma. The magma collects in a magma pool. Because the magma is less dense than the surrounding mantle material it will rise. Pressure in the magma cracks the overlying rocks. Then the magma injects into the crack. This process repeats thousands of times, bring the magma towards the surface.

 

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A volcano will form if the magma reaches the surface. When magma does reach the surface it is then called lava.

You will learn more about volcanoes in the following lessons.

 

lesson3_picture8


As the volcano erupts it may build a mountain. The lava along with ash and other pyroclastic material will continue to build the mountain higher with each eruption.

The Cascade mountain range in the Western United States and the Andes Mountains in South America were formed in this way!!

 

lesson3_picture9


This is a cross section of the Earth in the Southern Hemisphere. The map shows a subduction zone that has created the Peru-Chile Trench at the western edge of South America. This subduction zone has produced the Andes Mountains which run along the entire west coast of South America. It also shows you the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which is spreading the Atlantic Ocean making it wider and wider. The cross section shows two processes at work;

 

1. "Old Crust" being destroyed at a subduction zone and

2. "New Crust" being produced at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

 

lesson3_picture10


The pink lines on this map of the Pacific Ocean represent deep ocean trenches. These trenches are some of the lowest points on the crust of the Earth. Marianas Trench north of New Guinea is the deepest point on the Earth's surface at 36,201 feet below sea level. Marianas Trench is 7,173 feet deeper than Mount Everest is high!!!!

 

Trenches surround almost all of the Pacific Ocean. Some of the other trenches of the Pacific are the Aleutian, Peru-Chile, Kuril, and the Japan trench.

There are trenches wherever continental plates and oceanic plates collide. The Java Trench in the Indian Ocean is the deepest point of that ocean at 24,442 feet below sea level.

 

Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of paper. Use the page titles located directly under the questions to move your way through the lesson to locate the answers. When you finish the questions click on the Earth icon to return the program to the beginning.

 

1. In your own words explain what happens at a subduction zone.

2. In your own words explain what happens at a mid-ocean ridge.

3. At a subduction zone what causes magma to rise?

Chapter 1 Copymaster: Test, Reviews, Answer Keys, Chapter Schedule

Chapter #1 Copymaster includes tests and answers for students and teachers on material covered in Chapter 1.

Select options on the right hand side to proceed. 

Chapter 1 Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson Plan


Explain to your class that they will be working in three centers for science over the next few weeks. They need a science notebook, a pencil, and colored pencils daily. Some days they will need more lab equipment.  

 

Day one-
Materials: 

  1. Reading and Thinking Sheets for each student- See Content Lesson #1

  2. Hands-On materials- See Hands-On Lesson #1
    • 1 apple for every four students
       
    • 1 knife for teacher use only!!

Split your class into 3 groups. Each group will start at a different center. The three centers are the Hands-On Center, the Content Center, and the Computer Center. Have books dealing with Earth Science at each center for those who finish their work early.  
Each center will last approximately 15 minutes. When everyone in the class has finished their work in the center rotate the groups. When all the groups have been at each center review with the whole class by correcting the questions from the Computer Center and the Content Center. 
If your class is very large you may want to set up a fourth center. This could be called the Vocabulary Center. There is a Student Vocabulary Sheet and a Teacher Vocabulary Sheet provided in the Copy Masters file. 

Day Two
Materials:

  • One copy of Lesson #2 Content Sheets for each student

  • Hands-On Materials:
    • Two maps (Pangaea, World today) for the students to study.  
    • Two "World Cut Up" maps for each student pair to cut into the seven moving continental plates.  
    • Two pieces of blue construction paper (9 X 12) that will represent the oceans of the world.
      • Glue
      • Scissors
      • Colored Markers


Follow the same lesson plan for day one. Start the groups at a different center each day.  

Day Three-

Materials: 

  • One copy of Content Lesson # 3 for each student

  • Four strips of foam rubber 4 inches by 30 inches and about 1 inch thick. The foam rubber should be made of different colors. These strips will represent layers (strata) in the crust of the earth. (See Hands-On lesson #3)


Follow the same lesson plan design as in Day One and Two. Start the groups at a different center from the previous day

Day Four-
Review Vocabulary Sheets by playing a game called Baseball.
Materials: 

  • One die
  • One baseball diamond transparency
  • Four markers for the runners


Break your class into two teams.
Ask a student a question. If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. (See rules below) If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

Rules for the game


  1. Shake the die 
    1. single
    2. double
    3. triple
    4. home run
    5. single
    6. single

  2. Ask the question-If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. Place a marker on the base that they earned. If there is a runner on base ahead of them move the runner the same amount of bases as the batter. If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

  3. Keep rolling and asking questions until a player answers incorrectly. When they answer incorrectly switch batting teams.


Day Five-
Have the students work on the Review provided in the Copy Masters.


Day Six-
Correct the Review and play Baseball or another review game. After the students have learned Baseball they can play it in their groups with copies of the diamond.

Day Seven-
Test the students using the Test provided in the Copy Masters.

Baseball Game

baseballgame

Materials:


  • One die
  • One baseball diamond transparency
  • Four markers for the runners


Instructions

Break your class into two teams.
Ask a student a question. If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. (See rules below) If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

Rules for the game


  1. Shake the die 
    1. single
    2. double
    3. triple
    4. home run
    5. single
    6. single

  2. Ask the question-If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. Place a marker on the base that they earned. If there is a runner on base ahead of them move the runner the same amount of bases as the batter. If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

  3. Keep rolling and asking questions until a player answers incorrectly. When they answer incorrectly switch batting teams.

Chapter 1 Review

Review Chapter 1
The Earth: A Dynamic Planet

Name____________________

  1. Draw two diagrams showing the folding and fault-block mountain building process.






  2. In your own words explain how convection currents in the mantle move the plates of the Earth.






    Use the following terms to answer the questions 3-14 below.


    Collision plate boundary Transverse plate boundary Separation plate boundary
    Continental Drift Theory Pangea Plates
    Magma Trenches Lava
    Fault Laurasia Gondwanaland



  3. The southern continent after Pangea split apart. It became the continents of Africa, Antarctica, South America and the subcontinent of India.

  4. The plate boundary where two plates are moving apart creating new crust and making the oceans spread.


  5. This is molten rock on the surface of the Earth.


  6. This is the name of the supercontinent 250 million years ago.

  7. These are pieces of the crust that "float" and move because of the mantle's convection currents. 

Chapter 1 Test

Chapter 1 Test 

The Earth: A Dynamic Planet

Name______________________

1-4. Label the four layers of the Earth.


5. Explain how the mantle's convection currents move the Earth's plates?





6. What is happening at a transverse plate boundary?




7. Name two pieces of evidence that scientists have used to base the Continental Drift Theory on.




8. The collision of the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate produced the _______________________ Mountains, the highest mountain range in the world.

9. What type of mountain formation is shown in the diagram below?




10. What type of mountain formation is shown in the diagram below?



What is happening at the following plate boundaries?

11. Collision boundary-



12. Separation boundary-



13. Transverse boundary-


Matching Vocabulary I

14. _____ subduction zone  A Pieces of the crust that "float" on the mantle.
15. _____ convection currents  B The only ocean on Earth 250 million years ago.
16. _____ Pangea  C Movements in a material caused by hotter material rising and cooler material sinking.
17. _____ Plates  D Supercontinent 250 million years ago
18. _____Panthalassa  E Area where two plates are colliding. One plate is pushed down under the other plate.

Matching Vocabulary II

19. _____Magma A The northern half of Pangea after it split apart.
20. ___Continental Drift Theory  B The deepest places on the surface of the Earth. They are located at subduction zones.
21. ______Mid-ocean ridge  C Molten rock below the surface of the Earth
22. _____ Laurasia  D Place where two plates are separating. These plates are moving in opposite directions making the oceans larger.
23. _____Trenches  E The idea that the Earth's plates are "floating" on the mantle and have been for millions of years.

Chapter 1 Review Answer Key

Review Chapter 1
The Earth: A Dynamic Planet

Name  Answer Key  

  1. Draw two diagrams showing the folding and fault-block mountain building process.

    Fault-block mountain building process



    Folding Process






  2. In your own words explain how convection currents in the mantle move the plates of the Earth.

    The deepest portion of the mantle is much hotter than the upper mantle. Hot material rises to the top of the mantle and then cools and sinks. This rising and sinking happens in a circular motion which turns over and over. As it turns it moves the upper region of the mantle and the crust with it. 

    Use the following terms to answer the questions 3-14 below.


    Collision plate boundary Transverse plate boundary Separation plate boundary
    Pangea Plates Magma
    Continental Drift Theory Trenches Lava
    Fault Laurasia Gondwanaland
  3. The southern continent after Pangea split apart. It became the continents of Africa, Antarctica, South America and the subcontinent of India.
    Gondwanaland
  4. The plate boundary where two plates are moving apart creating new crust and making the oceans spread.
    Separation Plate Boundary

  5. This is molten rock on the surface of the Earth.
    Lava

  6. This is the name of the supercontinent 250 million years ago.
    Pangea
  7. These are pieces of the crust that "float" and move because of the mantle's convection currents. 
    Plates
  8. Molten rock under the surface of the Earth is called.
    Magma
  9. The northern continent after Pangea split.
    Laurasia
  10. A long crack in the crust is called a  Fault .

  11. A plate boundary in which the two plates crash into each other causing mountain building, earthquakes, and volcanic activity.
    Collision Plate Boundary

  12. The idea that the Earth's plates are moving across the surface of the Earth.
    Continental Drift Theory

  13. A plate boundary in which the two plates are sliding in opposite directions.
    Transverse Plate Boundary
  14. The deepest area of the oceans. They are formed at a subduction zone.
    Trenches
  15. What is the main material that the crust is made of?
    Rock
  16. What two metals are the main components of the inner and outer core?
    Iron and Nickel

  17. Name three pieces of evidence that scientists have used to base their ideas for the Continental Drift theory on.


    Scientists have used magnetic bands in rocks to prove that the continents have drifted apart, fossils of tropical plants and animals that have been found in places like Antarctica and Greenland, and fossils of fish found in high mountain regions.



18-21 Label the four layers of the Earth and explain what the main materials are that make up each layer.

1.Crust 2.Mantle 3.Outer Core 4. Inner Core

Chapter 1 Test Answer Key

he Earth: A Dynamic Planet

Name__Answer Key_____
1-4 Label the four layers of the Earth.

1.Crust 2.Mantle 3.Outer Core 4. Inner Core




5. Explain how the mantle's convection currents move the Earth's plates?
The deepest zone of the mantle is much hotter than the upper zone. Hot material rises to the top of the mantle and then cools and sinks. This rising and sinking happens in a circular motion. When the mantle flows it moves the plates. 

6. What is happening at a transverse plate boundary?
A transverse plate boundary has two plates sliding by each other. Both plates are moving in opposite directions. A transverse boundary is like a tear in the Earth's crust.


7. Name two pieces of evidence that scientists have used to base the Continental Drift Theory on. 
Scientists have used 1)magnetic bands in rocks and 2)fossils of tropical plants and animals that have been found in places like Antarctica and Greenland. They have also used fossils of fish found in high mountain regions in the center of continents.

8. The collision of the Indian plate and the Asian plate produced the Himalaya Mountains, the highest mountain range in the world.

9. What type of mountain formation is shown in the diagram below?

Folded Mountains


10. What type of mountain formation is shown in the diagram below?


Fault-block Mountains

What is happening at the following plate boundaries?
11. Collision boundary- 
Two plates are crashing into each other causing mountain building, volcanic activity, and earthquakes.
12. Separation boundary- 
Two plates are moving in opposite directions causing magma to fill the void and producing "NEW" crust. This is also spreading the oceans making them wider.
13. Transverse boundary-
Two plates are sliding past each other moving in opposite directions.

Matching Vocabulary I
14. __E__ subduction zone  A Pieces of the crust that "float" on the mantle.
15. __C__ convection currents  B The only ocean on Earth 250 million years ago.
16. __D__ Pangea  C Movements in a fluid caused by hotter material rising, then cooling and sinking in a circular motion.
17. __A__ Plates  D Supercontinent 250 million years ago
18. __B__Panthalassa  E Area where two plates are colliding. One plate is pushed down under the other plate.

Matching Vocabulary II
19. __C__Magma  A The northern half of Pangea after it split apart.
20. __E__Continental Drift Theory  B The deepest places on the surface of the Earth. They are located at subduction zones.
21. __D__Mid-ocean ridge  C Molten rock below the surface of the Earth 
22. __A__Laurasia  D Place where two plates are separating. These plates are moving in opposite directions making the oceans larger.
23. __B__Trenches  E The idea that the Earth's plates are "floating" on the mantle and have been for millions of years.

Chapter 1 Student Vocabulary

Vocabulary
Chapter 1
The Earth; A Dyanamic Planet

Name____________________

Lesson 1 The Earth's Layers

  1. Crust-



  2. Oceanic Crust-




  3. Continental Crust-






  4. Mantle-






  5. Convection Currents-




  6. Outer Core-




  7. Inner Core-




Lesson Two- Pangea to the present

  1. Dynamic Planet-



  2. Plates-



  3. Plate Tectonics/Continental Drift Theory-



    • Pangaea-



    • Panthalassa-



    • Laurasia-



    • Gondwanaland-



  4. Plate Boundaries
    • Convergent-



    • Divergent-



    • Transform-
  5. Myths and Legends 
    • Japan-Namazu and Kashima



    • Hawaii- Pele



    • Roman-Vulcan


Lesson 3- How Plates Move

  1. Subduction Zone-




  2. Mid-ocean ridge-



  3. Magma/Magma Pool-



  4. Pyroclastic Rock-



  5. Trenches-


  6. Formation of Mountains-

Chapter 1 Teacher Vocabulary

Vocabulary
Chapter 1
The Earth; A Dynamic Planet
 
Name____________________

Lesson 1 "The Earth's Layers"



  1. Crust -The outer layer of the Earth. The crust consists of ocean plates and continental plates. The crust is composed of light material called rock. The crust and the outer layer of the mantle together are called the lithosphere. The lithosphere is very brittle and light and moves because of convection currents in the lower layer of the mantle called the asthenosphere.

  2. Oceanic Crust -Made of dense basaltic rock. Oceanic plates carry the continental plates across the surface of the Earth.  

  3. Continental Crust -Made of light granitic rock. Continental crust rides on the oceanic crust.

    • Lithosphere - The crust and the upper rigid layer of the mantle seem to move together and form the plates of the Earth.

  4. Mantle -Largest layer of the Earth located directly under the crust. The mantle is composed of very hot, dense, flowing rock. The material in the mantle flows because of convection currents. 

    • Asthenosphere - Lower layer of the mantle. This is the layer that flows and moves the plates of the Earth. Flows very slowly with the consistency of hot asphalt under pressure.

  5. Convection Currents - are a circular current caused by the difference in temperatures from the bottom to the top of the mantle. It is because of these currents that the plates of the Earth have moved in the past and are moving today. These plate movements cause earthquakes, mountain building, and volcanism. 

  6. Outer Core -The layer located directly under the mantle. The outer core is composed of liquid nickel and iron. Scientists believe that the outer core is liquid because S waves from an earthquake bounce of the layer instead of passing through it.

  7. Inner Core -The inner core is composed of nickel and iron under such great temperatures and pressures that the metals are in a solid state of motion.

Lesson Two- "Pangaea to the present"



  1. Dynamic Planet -The Earth's surface is very slowly but constantly changing. The plates are moving causing earthquakes that reshape the land, mountain building, and volcanism that also dramatically reshapes the surface.

  2. Plates -The thin, fragile, and rigid lithosphere is broken up into 12 main plates. These plates move very slowly at about 1 inch to 4 inches per year.

  3. Plate Tectonics/Continental Drift Theory -Alfred Wegener, a German scientist proposed this theory that states that the Earth's surface is broken into pieces that move and have moved for millions of years. Wegener did not know the mechanism that moved the plates, and his theory was rejected until the 1960's when scientists studied the ocean floor and found the mid-ocean ridges (sea floor spreading zones).
    • Pangaea -Super continent 250 million years ago. The seven continents were all connected together into one huge land mass.
    • Panthalassa -The gigantic ocean 250 million years ago. It was the predecessor to the Pacific Ocean.
    • Laurasia -About 200 million years ago Pangaea began to break up. The northern part which consisted of North America, Asia, and Europe was then called Laurasia. 
    • Gondwanaland -The southern part after the split up of Pangaea was called Gondwanaland. Gondwanaland consisted of South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and the subcontinent of India.


  4. Plate Boundaries 
    • Convergent -A boundary in which two plates collide causing
      1) immense mountain building (Ex: Indian plate and the Eurasian plate forming the Himalayan Mountains) and 
      2) one plate riding above the other driving the thinner denser plate down into the mantle creating a subduction zone
    • Divergent -A boundary in which two plates are separating. The two plates are moving in opposite directions and as they spread apart magma fills the void causing the formation of new crust. Divergent boundaries cause the oceans to spread apart while convergent boundaries cause the oceans to shrink.
    • Transform -A boundary in which two plates scrape and slide past each other. Transform boundaries are like tears in the Earth's crust. An example is the San Andreas Fault in California. 



Lesson 3- How Plates Move 


  1. Subduction Zone -Formed at a convergent plate boundary. One plate is lighter and thicker than the other causing the thinner denser plate to be driven down into the mantle. Subduction zones are areas of the world in which high amounts of earthquakes and volcanism is present. Subduction zones are ocean shrinking zones.

  2. Mid-ocean ridge -Formed at a divergent plate boundary. The worlds longest continuous mountain range over 40,000 miles long. Where the two plates separate lava fills the void causing new crust to be produced. Mid-ocean ridges are ocean spreading zones.  

  3. Magma/Magma Chamber -Magma is molten rock under the Earth's surface. Magma is full of gas and under extreme pressures. Magma will collect in areas of weak rock far under the surface of the Earth in zones called magma chambers.

  4. Pyroclastic Rock -Pyroclastic is a Greek word that means "broken by fire". Pyroclasts are fragmented rock that is ejected from a volcano. Pyroclasts are classified by the size of the particle; ash is very small pieces of shattered rock. lapilli are pieces of shattered rock 1/10 of an inch to 2 inches in diameter. Blocks and bombs are larger pyroclasts ranging in size from 2 inches to several feet in diameter. Blocks are angular chunks of rock and bombs are rounded rock that takes its shape as it is hurled through the air.

  5. Trenches -Form at subduction zones. They are the deepest part of the oceans and the lowest points on the crust of the Earth.

  6. Formation of Mountains -
    • Folded Mountains -Rollercoaster like formation. The plates of the Earth are pushed together and the impact forms the tallest mountains on Earth.  

    • Fault-block Mountains -The plates are pushed together and snap from the collision. These mountains have very rough linear peaks. Ex: The Grand Teton Mountains in Wyoming.

    • Dome Mountains -These mountains form when plate collisions push an area of the crust up into a dome shape. The crust doesn't snap and break as in fault-block mountains. Ex: The Black Hills of South Dakota.

Lesson #1 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

Goals, Objectives and Materials
For Lesson #1
The Earth's Layers

Goal: 

To provide students with the understanding that the Earth is comprised of four layers.

Objectives: 

The students will be able to

  1. Name and label the four layers of the Earth;
  2. Identify the main minerals that make up each layer;
  3. Explain how scientists formulated the idea that the Earth is comprised of four layers.


Materials: 

  1. One "Earth's Layers" disk for each computer
  2. Reading and Thinking Sheets for each student- See Content Lesson #1

  3. Hands-On materials- See Hands-On Lesson #1
    • 1 apple for every four students
    • 1 knife

Lesson #2 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

Goals, Objectives and Materials
For Lesson #2
"Pangaea to the Present"

Goals: 

To acquaint students with the concept that the Earth is a dynamic ever changing planet. To help students to understand that the Earth's plates have been moving for millions of years and are still moving today.

Objectives: 

The students will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate how the Earth's plates have moved.
  2. Describe the processes that cause plate movement.


Materials:

  1. One copy of Lesson #2 Content Sheets for each student

Hands-On Materials:

  1. Two maps (Pangaea, World today) for the students to study.  
  2. Two "World Cut Up" maps for each student pair to cut into the seven moving continental plates.  
  3. Two pieces of blue construction paper (9 X 12) that will represent the oceans of the world.
  4. Glue
  5. Scissors
  6. Colored Markers

Lesson #3 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

Goals, Objectives and Materials
For Lesson #3
"How the Earth's Plates Move"

Goals: 

To help students understand the concept of plate tectonics.

Objectives: 

Students will:

  1. Become familiar with and be able to demonstrate the process of folding;

  2. Become familiar with the process of convection current movement in the asthenosphere;

  3. Become familiar with processes that produce convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries.


Materials: 


  1. One copy of Content Lesson # 3 for each student

  2. Four strips of foam rubber 4 inches by 30 inches and about 1 inch thick. The foam rubber should be made of different colors. These strips will represent layers (strata) in the crust of the earth. (See Hands-On lesson #3)

Lesson #1 Content Center

Content Center (Lesson #1)
The Earth's layers

Geologists have known for about 100 years that the Earth is composed of four layers; the Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, and the Inner Core . Scientists still argue about the makeup of these layers and exactly how each layer interact. 
A geologist, by the name of Andrija Mohorovicic, discovered in 1909 that earthquake waves near the surface moved slower than earthquake waves that passed through the interior of the Earth. He also noticed that the P (primary, first and strongest) waves that passed through the interior of the Earth did not do so in a straight line. These waves were bent or deflected by something!!! (see diagram A page 3) 
He decided that the outside layer or Crust was made of less dense material (Rock) and the next layer, the Mantle was much denser. This would explain why the earthquake waves moved slower through the crust. Waves of all kinds move faster and straighter through denser, more solid objects.
Today scientists believe that the crust and the rigid, outer zone of the mantle makes up a layer that is called the Lithosphere . The lithosphere is broken into 12 large pieces that are called plates. The zone directly under the lithosphere is made of a flowing, denser layer called the Asthenosphere. Scientists believe that the plates ride on the asthenosphere, which flows due to convection currents. See diagram on page 2.



Beno Gutenberg

a German geologist, believed that the Outer Core must be made of a liquid because the slower S (secondary waves) could not pass through this layer and in fact "bounced off" and were deflected many degrees off course. Study diagram A on page 3.

 

The fourth layer, the Inner Core, is composed of very, very hot metals (iron and nickel) with pressures so great that the metals do not flow as a liquid, but are forced to vibrate in place like a solid. Earthquake waves that reach this layer move at the greatest speeds because waves move through solids faster than through gases and liquids.  
To honor Mohorovicic, scientists have named the boundary between the crust and the mantle the Mohorovicic discontinuity or the "MOHO" for short. Beno Gutenberg discovered the boundary or discontinuity between the mantle and the outer core. This boundary was named after him, the Gutenberg discontinuity. See diagram B. 

 

Discussion Questions 


  1. How did Andrija Mohorovicic discover that the Earth's crust was made of less dense rock than the mantle. 
  2. Write in your own words the definition of a discontinuity.

Lesson #2 Content Center

CONTENT CENTER 
(PANGAEA TO THE PRESENT )
Lesson # 2
Plate Tectonics
(The Continental Drift Theory)


Earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains are all produced by the same natural processes. We know this to be true today, but even as little as one hundred years ago scientists were unsure as to how these geologic processes occurred.  
The ancient Japanese legend of Namazu  explained why earthquakes occur this way. Namazu was a giant catfish that lived under the surface of the Earth. It would shake violently and cause great destruction from time to time.  Kashima, who is a Japanese god, was the only god that was strong enough to control Namazu. Kashima would hold Namazu down and pin the catfish under a rock. When Kashima's mind would wonder, Namazu would escape and cause another earthquake.  
Many cultures have tried to explain why earthquakes and volcanoes occur through stories about their gods and goddesses. The Hawaiian Islanders thought that volcanoes were the home of the fire goddess Pele. The Romans believed that the blacksmith god, Vulcan, used volcanoes as his forge to produce weapons.
For hundreds of years people throughout the world explained earthquakes and volcanoes through myth and legend. In 1620 however Sir Francis Bacon of England declared that it was not gods and goddesses that caused natural disasters. He noticed how the coasts of Africa and South America were very much alike. In fact they could almost fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. The map on the next page shows how the two continents could fit together.



As humans traveled the world they noticed seashells high in mountains many miles from the nearest ocean. Why is there a similarity between the coasts of Africa and South America? How did those seashells end up high in the mountains? These questions along with new discoveries lead scientists to believe that the Earth is a dynamic, or constantly changing planet. It was not until the 1960's though, that scientists started to agree to the concept that the continents could move across the surface of the Earth.  
A German meteorologist by the name of Alfred Wegener showed that rock bands in South America and rock bands in Africa matched mineral content and by age exactly. He also showed that the magnetic bands in these same rocks did not point to the magnetic north pole as they should. If the continents could be moved back into the position that they were created, then they do point to the magnetic north pole. Wegener concluded that the continents must have drifted apart hundreds of miles. He did not however have an explanation as to how these massive continents could move such a great distance. 
It was not until the 1960's that geologists gained the technology to fully understand the processes that could move the Earth's plates. They concluded that the Earth's surface was composed of not one large sheet but was composed of more than twelve major pieces of crust. Geologists call these pieces plates . These plates float across the surface of the Earth like an iceberg floats on the ocean. The driving force behind these plate movements are the convection currents in the mantle. The convection currents turn very slowly dragging the plates along with these movements. The convection currents move the plates very slowly. These plates move at only 1 to 4 inches per year!!  
The lines on the map of the world on page 4 indicate the position of the plate boundaries. Boundaries are places where the plates meet.
Now geologists can finally explain the reasons that mountains are built, volcanoes erupt, and earthquakes occur. The Plate Tectonics Theory of continental movement can explain scientifically why all of these geologic processes can occur. Humans no longer have to try to explain these natural occurrences through myth and legend. 



Review Questions 


  1. In your own words explain what the Continental Drift Theory states.
  2. How did Alfred Wegener try to prove that the continents of Africa and South America were once connected.
  3. How did the ancient people of Japan explain earthquakes?
  4. How did the ancient Romans explain the presence volcanoes.

Lesson #3 Content Center

Content Center
Plate Movements
(Lesson #3)
(Mountain Building)


The great mountain ranges of the world were created because of the constant but very slow movement of the Earth's plates. When the plates of the Earth collide the crust folds into high mountain ranges. The roots of the world's great mountain ranges contain some of the oldest rocks on the surface of the Earth. Some of these rocks are over 3.5 billion years old!! These rocks were once buried deep inside the Earth and have been raised into mountains by the collisions of the plates.
These plates travel at a very slow rate about 1 to 4 inches per year. The Indian Subcontinent was a very fast mover, clipping along at over 4 inches per year. When it slammed into the Eurasian plate over 24 million years ago the collision built the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayas. In fact, the Himalayas are still climbing higher and higher today.  
Math Connection 
How many miles would a plate travel in 100 million years at a rate of 1 inch per year? (Hint: Divide 100,000,000 inches by 12 inches per foot and then divide that answer by 5280 feet in a mile). Answer- In 100 million years the plate would travel about 1578 miles. 

There are five ways that mountains are formed 
  1. Volcanic activity 
  2. Folding 
  3. Faulting 
  4. Dome building 
  5. Erosion


In this lesson we are going to concentrate on the processes of 1)Folding, 2)Faulting, and 3)Dome building.
All rock that is put under extreme pressure for long periods of time (thousands or millions of years) will fold like clay.  Folding is a process in which the Earth's plates are pushed together in a roller coaster like series of high points and low points. Folding bends many layers of rocks without breaking them. The Appalachian Mountains and Rocky Mountains of the United States, and the Alps of Europe are examples of mountain ranges that were formed by folding.  
Folded Strata (Layers)

 

Many of the greatest mountain ranges of the world have formed because of enormous collisions between continents. The Appalachian Mountains in the Eastern United States were formed about 400 million years ago when North America and Africa collided.

400 million years ago 

The areas (next page) represented in yellow (white) are major mountain ranges that were formed by collisions of the continents millions of years ago!!!


Mountains sometimes form when many layers of the Earth's crust are moved vertically upward at fault lines by pressures caused by plates colliding. Fault lines are great cracks in the crust. The mountains that are formed in this way are called fault-block mountains.  The Sierra Nevada mountains in California and Nevada, and the Grand Teton range of Wyoming are examples of fault-block mountains.


The Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, and the Adirondack Mountains of New York are low mountains that were formed when the crust was heaved upward without folding or faulting into a rounded dome. These are called Dome Mountains.  Dome mountains are much higher in elevation than the surrounding land and because of this erosion occurs at a very fast rate.

Thought and Discussion Questions
  1. What are the 5 causes for mountain building?
  2. What is the difference between how folded mountains and block-fault mountains are formed. 
  3. How do dome mountains form?

Lesson #1 Hands-on Center

Hands-on Center (Earth's Layers)
Lesson #1

Eating the Earth

 Materials:

  1. One-fourth of an apple for each student
  2. 1 knife


The teacher will cut each apple into four pieces, cutting from the top (stem side) down through the core. Each student should receive 1/4 of an apple. The teacher will point out the similarities between the apple and the Earth's layers (see notes below).



The skin of the apple will represent the crust of the Earth. The teacher will point out how thin the skin is in comparison to the "meat" and the core. Explain to the students that the crust compared to the rest of the Earth is much thinner than the skin is to the rest of the apple.  
The "meat" of the apple will represent the mantle of the Earth. Explain to the students that the mantle is the largest layer of the Earth. The mantle is composed of molten rock that is in a semi-plastic state. The mantle's composition is similar to very hot asphalt.  
The core of the apple will represent the outer and inner cores of the Earth. Make sure that the students understand the Earth's core is composed of two layers. Point out that the core is like a little round ball in the middle of the Earth. The outer core is actually composed of very hot liquid metals, nickel and iron. The inner core is composed of the same nickel and iron but in a solid state because of intense pressure.
The students should have a science experiment notebook. Instruct them to draw and label a diagram of this and every hands-on experiment. Direct the students to write notes of what they learn as the experiment is being conducted.  
The students should draw a model of the layers of the Earth in their science notebooks labeling the crust, mantle, and the core.
The students may eat the model of the Earth after the demonstration!

Lesson #2 Hands-on Center

Hands-on Center
Pangaea to the Present
Lesson #2

Jigsaw World


Materials:  

  1. Two maps (Pangaea, World today)  
  2. Two "World Cut Up" maps  
  3. Two pieces of blue construction paper (9 X 12)
  4. Glue
  5. Scissors
  6. Markers

  1. The students will study the "World Today Map" (The black arrows indicate the direction of plate movement) and the "Pangaea/Panthassla Map".  
  2. Instruct the students to cut the two "World Cut Up" maps on the red lines.  
  3. The students will then place and paste the continents at the position that they were located 250 million years ago in the great ocean called Panthassla.  
  4. The students will then make a prediction of what the world will look like in 100 million years. The students should use the "World Map Today" in making their predictions. 
  5. Instruct the students to place the remaining continent cutouts and paste them onto the other piece of blue construction paper.
  6. The students should also predict where new mountains will form and where new volcanoes will erupt by marking them on their prediction maps using markers.  
  7. Have the students write in their science notebooks what their reasons were for placing the continents where they did. 






Lesson #3 Hands-on Center

Hands-on Center
(How Plates Move)
Lesson #3

Building Mountains
Modified and adapted from John Farndon's book
How the Earth Works
Materials: 

  1. Four strips of foam rubber 4 inches by 30 inches and about 1 inch thick. The foam rubber should be made of different colors. These strips will represent layers (strata) in the crust of the earth.



The students will set the strips in alternating layers as shown above. They will push the four layers from each end causing the layers to fold into an upside down U shape. This will represent the folding process. The upside U will represent a geologic feature called an anticline (mountain peak).  
The students will also push the layers from each end causing the four layers to fold into a U shape. This U shape will represent a geological feature called a syncline (valley).  
The teacher will explain that this is a simplified version of how folded mountains are formed and that the anticlines are the peaks and the synclines are the valleys of the mountain range.

Building Mountains II
Modified and adapted from John Farndon's book "How the Earth Works"
 
Materials:
  1. Two colors of modeling clay
  2. Two wooden blocks 4 in. x 6 in. x 4 in. or larger  


The students will lay the modeling clay flat in alternating layers. These layers of clay will represent layers (strata) in crust of the Earth. The wooden blocks will be placed one at each end of the clay layers. the students will push the blocks toward each other very, very slowly. This pushing of the blocks will represent the movement of the continental plates. The students will see the folding process in action as they build their own mountain (Anticline).

After the students have built their mountains they could cut the clay mountains in the middle, this represents plates moving apart at a fault zone. This is what happened to South America and Africa. The students should put them back together looking for the similarities between the layers. The teacher will tell the students that this is exactly how geologists tried to prove the plate tectonics theory of plate movement. 

Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions 

Lesson 1 "The Earth's Layers" 

Discussion Questions
 

  1. How did Andrija Mohorovicic discover that the Earth's crust is made of less dense rock than the mantle.  


  2. Write in your own words the definition of a discontinuity.

  3. Name the four layers of the Earth in order from the outside to the  
    center of the Earth.

  4. What causes the mantle to "flow"?

  5. What are the two main metals that make up the outer and inner core?


  6. Describe in your own words how the Earth's layers were formed. Card 2 "The Four Layers" will help you

 

Lesson 2 "Pangea to the Present" 

Discussion Questions



  1. In your own words explain what the Continental Drift Theory states.


  2. How did Alfred Wegener try to prove that the continents of Africa and South America were once connected.

  3. How did the ancient people of Japan explain earthquakes?


  4. How did the ancient Romans explain the presence volcanoes.

Lesson 3 "How Plates Move" 


Discussion Questions

  1. What causes mountain building?

  2. What is the difference between how folded mountains and block-fault mountains are formed.


  3. How do dome mountains form?


  4. In your own words explain what happens at a subduction zone.

  5. In your own words explain what happens at a mid-ocean ridge.

  6. At a subduction zone what causes magma to rise?

Discussion Questions Answer Key

Discussion Questions 

Lesson 1 "The Earth's Layers" 

Discussion Questions

  1. How did Andrija Mohorovicic discover that the Earth's crust is made of less dense rock than the mantle.  
    By studying earthquake waves. The waves moved at diferent speed and at different angles through the different layers . 

  2. Write in your own words the definition of a discontinuity.
    A discontinuity is the boundary between the layers of the Earth.
  3. Name the four layers of the Earth in order from the outside to the  
    center of the Earth.
    1.Crust 2. Mantle 3. Outer Core 4. Inner Core 

  4. What causes the mantle to "flow"?
    The mantle flows because of convection currents that are caused by very hot material in the mantle rising, cooling, and then sinking. This circular pattern causes the mantle to flow. 

  5. What are the two main metals that make up the outer and inner core?
    Nickel and Iron 

  6. Describe in your own words how the Earth's layers were formed. Card 2 "The Four Layers" will help you.
    As the Earth cooled the densest, heaviest materials sank to the middle of the Earth. The lightest materials rose to the top. This material was made mostly of rock. Rock makes up the crust of the Earth. Denser rock makes up the mantle. The most dense materials, iron and nickel, make up the inner and outer core.

Lesson 2 "Pangea to the Present" 

Discussion Questions



  1. In your own words explain what the Continental Drift Theory states.
    The Earth's plates are moved very slowly, 1-4 inches per year, by convection currents emenating from the mantle. These plates have been moving for millions of years and continue to move today. 

  2. How did Alfred Wegener try to prove that the continents of Africa and South America were once connected.
    Alfred Wegener discovered that the magnetic bands in rocks from South America did not point ot the north pole as they should. If these rocks were moved to the position that Wegener though they were created then they did point ot the northpole. He also matched rocks from Africa and South America for mineral content and age. 

  3. How did the ancient people of Japan explain earthquakes?
    The Japanese explained that earthquakes were produced by a giant catfish called Namazu. This catfish lived under the Earth's surface and shook very violently when it was not kept under control by the god Kashima. 

  4. How did the ancient Romans explain the presence volcanoes.
    Vulcan, the god of weapons, used the volcanoes off the coast of the Roman Empire as his forge.

Lesson 3 "How Plates Move" 


Discussion Questions

  1. What causes mountain building?
    Mountains are formed from the Earth's plates movements. As plates crash into each other they push the crust up high into mountains. 

  2. What is the difference between how folded mountains and block-fault mountains are formed.
    Folded mountains form into rollercoaster like formations. The layers are bent but not broken. When block-fault mountains are formed the layers are pushed up and broken into high sharp peaks and valleys. 

  3. How do dome mountains form?
    Dome mountains form when the layers of the Earth don't break or fold but are pushed up into a rounded dome shape. 


  4. In your own words explain what happens at a subduction zone.
    Two plates come together, one overriding the other at a subduction zone. The oceanic plate, which is thinner and denser, is driven under the continetal plate and into the mantle. A deep ocean trench is produced at the subduction zone. 

  5. In your own words explain what happens at a mid-ocean ridge.
    Two plates are separating with magma welling up and filling the void with newly produced crust. These spreading plates are making the oceans wider and wider while the subduction zones are making the oceans smaller and destroying old crust. 
  6. At a subduction zone what causes magma to rise?
    The oceanic crust and the upper layer of the mantle melts as it is driven into the mantleThe oceanic crust is not as dense as the mantle is. Because this material is less dense it will rise.

Chapter 2 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Chapter 2 focuses on Earthquakes and Volcanoes.

Lessons included in this chapter:

#4 Earthquakes - The Rolling Earth

#5 Volcanoes

#6 Volcanic Terms

Resources for Teachers can be found under the Chapter #2 Copymaster.

Select from the options on the right to proceed.

Earthquakes - The Rolling Earth Lesson #4

rollingearth1

 

An earthquake is a sudden, rapid shaking of the Earth caused by the release of energy stored in rocks. This energy can be built up and stored for many years and then released in seconds or minutes. Many earthquakes are so small that they can not be felt by humans. Some, on the other hand, have caused great destruction and have killed hundreds of thousands of people. The pink lines and dots on the map of the world above indicate the regions of earthquake activity.

 

There are two major regions of earthquake activity. One is the circum-Pacific belt which encircles the Pacific Ocean, and the other is the Alpide belt which slices through Europe and Asia. The circum-Pacific belt includes the West coasts of North America and South America, Japan, and the Phillipines.

Over one million earthquakes may occur each year on the Earth. Most earthquakes last only seconds, but some large quakes may last minutes. About 90% of all Earthquakes are produced at plate boundaries where two plates are colliding, spreading apart, or sliding past each other. When these plates move suddenly they release an incredible amount of energy that is changed into wave movement. Earthquake waves resemble sound and water waves in the manor in which they move. It is these waves that roll through the Earth's crust causing buildings to collapse, bridges to snap, mountains to rise, the ground to fall, and in some cases the ground to open up into huge cracks.

 

rollingearth2 


Why do earthquakes occur? Scientists believed that the movement of the Earth's plates bends and squeezes the rocks at the edges of the plates. Sometimes this bending and squeezing puts great pressure on the rocks. Rocks are somewhat elastic, they can be bent without breaking. Have you ever stretched a rubberband? You know if you increase the tension too much though, the rubberband will snap!! Rock layers act somewhat the same way, if the pressures becomes too great the rock layer will break and move. When this occurs the layers will move along a crack in the Earth's crust called a fault or the release of energy will cause a new faultline to be produced. This rupture of the rocks and the resulting movement causes an earthquake.

 

rollingearth3 


This is an aerial photo of the San Andreas fault line in California. The red arrows point to the crack in the crust that is the surface fault. This fault is the boundary between two huge plates, the North American plate and the Pacific plate. The two plates are sliding past each other in opposite directions. This type of plate boundary is called a transverse boundary. A transverse boundary is actually a tear in the Earth's crust. The black arrows represent the directions that the two plates are traveling.

This fault line is perhaps the most studied transverse boundary in the world. Many earthquakes each year occur on the San Andreas fault which runs in California from the Mexico border east of San Diego north to the San Francisco Bay area. The next photo shows the destruction that occurred during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake.

 

rollingearth4


This aerial photograph shows the destruction that occurred during the February 2, 1971 San Fernando earthquake. The freeway bridge and road were extensively damaged during this shaking of the crust.

 

rollingearth5 


When an earthquake occurs an area of the crust will move very suddenly and with a great release of energy. The point of the actual rock rupture is called the focus . The focus is usually found far beneath the surface. The point directly above the focus on the surface of the Earth is called the epicenter.

When the rocks move suddenly they will produce waves in the Earth's crust. These waves move out in all directions and can produce widespread damage on the Earth's surface.

When the rupture of the rock occurs the release of energy causes seismic waves to be produced. Just as wind energy causes waves in water to move across a lake or ocean, seismic waves move through the layers of the Earth. These seismic waves are what produces the destruction that can accompany an earthquake by heaving, shaking, and cracking the ground as they pass through an area. The seismic waves spread out in all directions from the focus.

 

rollingearth6

 

Compression waves are one type of seismic wave. They are the first to arrive at the surface of the Earth. Because of this they are given another name, P or Primary waves.

P waves are the fastest of the seismic waves. They travel at incredible speeds, 14,000 m.p.h at the surface to over 25,000 m.p.h. through the core of the Earth. P waves are even able to pass all the way through the entire Earth.

When P waves strike an object they push and pull the object , like a train engine bumping into a railroad car which then bumps into another and so on all the way through the whole length of the train. This jackhammer movement is the first sign that an earthquake is occurring.

As a wave passes through a house, the house is pushed and pulled. If the house is not strong enough it might collapse.

 

rollingearth7


Shear waves reach the surface shortly after the P waves and are given the name S or Secondary waves. S waves travel at about half the speed of P waves. They move objects in their paths in an up and down motion in the direction that the wave is moving.

S waves can only move through solids and because of this can travel only through the crust and mantle of the Earth. When S waves strike the outer core, which is made of liquid iron and nickel, the waves stop.

 

rollingearth8


Surface waves are the third type of wave. These are the waves that produce the most destruction. They originate from the arrival of P and S waves at the surface. They are much slower than both P and S waves. Surface waves are limited to travel along only the surface of the Earth, just as waves in a body of water are limited to travel along only the surface of the water.

There are two types of surface waves: Love waves and Rayleigh waves. Love waves move in a manner very similar to S waves but the movement to objects in it's path is side to side instead of up and down. Rayleigh waves travel much in the same way as waves in water. Rayleigh waves have an almost circular pattern to its wave motion.

 

rollingearth9


The Richter Magnitude is a number that is used to measure the size of an earthquake. The magnitude is a measure of the strength of the seismic waves that have been sent out from the focus. A scientist uses a seismograph to determine the strength of the earthquake. A seismograph is an instrument that measures the amount of ground motion that an earthquake produces.

Each number on the Richter Scale represents an earthquake that is ten times as powerful as the number below it.

Examples: An earthquake measuring 6 is ten times stronger than a magnitude 5 quake. An earthquake of a magnitude 9 is 10,000 times more powerful than a 5.

The strongest earthquake ever measured was a 8.9 off of the coast of Ecuador in 1906. Earthquakes of 6 and above are considered major quakes. Earthquakes of 7 and above have the ability to do great damage and kill many people.

 

rollingearth10


Each of the graphs on this page shows an earthquake reading on a seismograph. The waves from an earthquake sets a writing device in motion showing the magnitude and the length of time that the earth is in motion during a quake.

The strength or magnitude is recorded in the verical (up and down) lines. The stronger the quake the longer the lines will be drawn on the graph.

The duration (length of time) that a quake occurs is represented in the horizontal lines. The duration of the earthquake in the top graph shows a quake lasting about 40 seconds. Each box on the graph is a one minute time duration. The bottom earthquake lasted about one minute and 20 seconds.

Which earthquake was stronger??

 

Write your answers to the questions below in complete sentences on a piece of paper. Use the page titles directly under the questions to move through the lesson to find the answers for the questions. When you are finished click on the Earth icon so that the next group can begin the lesson.

1. How are earthquake waves produced?

2. What does a Richter Scale show?

3. What are the differences between compression, shear, and surface waves?

Volcanoes Lesson #5

Volcanic activity is the most powerful force in nature. Some volcanic eruptions are much more powerful than the largest nuclear explosion. Volcanoes have killed thousands of people and have created some of the most frightening events in human history.

Volcanoes have been the basis for myths and legends the world over.

Volcanoes are also responsible for much of the land we live on, 90% of all the continents and ocean basins are the product of volcanism. The air we breathe, and the water we drink have been produced by millions of years of eruptions of steam and other gases.

 

volcanoes1

 

The volcanic mountain above is Mount Adams which is located in the Cascade Range of Washington.

 

The word volcano is derived from the name of the ancient Roman island of Vulcano which lies off the southwest coast of Italy. The Romans believed that Vulcan, the god of fire and the maker of weapons, used the volcano on that island to forge his weapons.

Volcanoes are not alive but scientists use human terms to talk about volcanoes, such as active, alive, dormant, resting, sleeping, extinct, dead, lifetime, and restless.

 

volcanoes2

 

The island in the middle of the picture is Vulcano. The island was formed by Vulcanian eruptions, which are eruptions of hot gas and steam followed by ejections of thick and pasty lava.

 

The term Volcano has two definitions;

1. An opening in the crust of the Earth in which molten rock called magma and gases can escape to the surface.

2. The mountain that is formed from volcanic eruptions.

 

volcanoes3

 

This is a photo of the volcano Paricutin (Pear-A-Koo-Teen). Paricutin's cone formed from nine years of almost constant eruptions. Red hot cinders exploded from the main vent and landed near it building the cone higher and higher. This type of cone is called a cinder cone. You will learn more about the types of volcanic cones in the eighth lesson, "Volcanic Cones and Eruptions".

 

volcanoes4 


Volcanoes actually build themselves into a mountain with repeated eruptions. In 1943 a farmer in Mexico noticed that some cracks (fissures) in his corn field were growing wider and wider. The next day his field was engulfed by a growing volcanic cone (Light Green). During the week the cone grew 500 feet taller (Dark Green). Within a year (Dark Gray) Paricutin was over 1200 feet higher than the surrounding landscape. During the next eight years the volcano did not grow much taller but the cone's base grew wider and wider (Light gray). Paricutin stopped erupting in 1952 almost as fast as it started. The mountain has been silent since.

Volcanoes can build themselves into high mountains one day and in the case of Mt. St. Helens erupt violently blowing their top off the next day. Mt. St. Helens lost over 1300 feet of its summit during the eruption and simultaneous landslide of 1980.

 

Volcanoes are classified as active, dormant, and extinct. Active volcanoes are either currently erupting or have erupted in recorded history. There are over 500 volcanoes on Earth that fit this category today. Dormant or resting volcanoes are not currently erupting but are considered likely to do so. Mt. St. Helens had been dormant for one hundred twenty-three years before it erupted in 1980. Extinct or dead volcanoes have not erupted in recorded history and are not expected to erupt again.

 

volcanoes5

 

The photo above is of beautiful Mt. St. Helens before it erupted on May 18, 1980. Mt. St. Helens was one of the most beautifully symetrical stratovolcanoes in the world. It was called "the Fuji of the west". Mount Fuji, in Japan, is the most photographed mountain in the world. The next card will show you what this mountain looked like shortly after the eruption. The lake in the foreground changed. The lake's level is now 150 feet higher because the landslide and eruption filled the bottom of the lake with rock, soil, and pyroclasts.

 

volcanoes6


This is Mt. St. Helens four months after the eruption. Notice the loss of over 1300 feet of the summit. Also notice the total devastation of the beautiful forests and how Spirit Lake rose. Spirit Lake's surface was completely filled with trees that were blasted into the lake by the force of the eruption. The lake is now much more shallow, wider, and longer than before the eruption. Huge trees still float across the lake today.

 

volcanoes7

 

The eruption left a crater over a mile wide and over 2000 feet deep. The mountain is still active today spewing small whisps of steam. A lava dome is growing in the bottom of the huge crater.


A lava dome is a steep mass of very thick and pasty lava that is pushed up from the main vent. The lava is so viscous (thick and pasty) that it does not flow but slowly rises higher with each movement of magma in the conduit. Think of toothpaste that is slowly squeezed and then stopped and then squeezed again from the tube. This is how the lava dome in Mt. St. Helen's was formed.

The dome's exterior surface is very rough with chunks of lava that were formed from small eruptions that broke the cooled and hardened surface into blocks.

 

volcanoes8

 

The dome slowly "grew" larger and larger over a seven year period. An earlier dome started to form one month after the famous eruption when very thick lava (dacitic lava) rose into the crater from the magma chamber below. This dome was destroyed by an explosive eruption just a month later.

The large dome that is very visible today is over 900 feet tall (taller than an 80 story building) and over 3000 feet wide (10 football fields). As large as the lava dome is, it is still dwarfed by the huge crater that was the result of the 1980 eruption. Steamy whisps of steam are still visible from the dome telling us that the volcano's magma is filling the conduit, making the volcano still active today.

 

volcanoes9


There are three ways that volcanoes form. Subduction Zone volcanoes form at the boundaries of two plates, one overriding the other. Subduction zone volcanoes are the most violent and destructive of the volcanic types. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Pinatubo, Krakatoa, and Mt. Vesuvius are all famous explosive subduction zone volcanoes. Mid-ocean rift volcanoes form where two oceanic plates are spreading apart. There are more rift zone volcanoes than any other type.

These mid-ocean or rift zone volcanoes are the world's longest continuous mountain chain. This mountain chain encircles the entire Earth. It is more than 40,000 miles long.

The third way that volcanoes form occurs at a Hot Spot. Hot spots are usually found under oceanic crust, but can be located under continental crust. You will learn more about Hot Spot volcanoes in the lesson "Hot Spots-Yellowstone and Hawaii".

The diagram above shows the three ways that volcanoes form.

 

Predicting exactly when a volcano will erupt is next to impossible. Today geologists are becoming much more accurate in making the public aware that a volcano is showing signs that it may erupt in the near future.

In the months before Mt. St. Helens erupted geologists knew the mountain was getting restless. A magnitude 4.1 earthquake was recorded on March 20 (about 2 months before the large eruption). Many shallow earthquakes were recorded over the next seven weeks. Magma moving higher and higher inside the mountain was causing these earthquakes. As the magma rose it formed a large bulge on the north flank. This bulge was growing daily and the geologists knew that an eruption was soon to be.

What the authorities did was evacutate most of the people in and near the mountain. Some decided to stay. Almost everyone that was near the eruption was instantly killed. In all, 57 people died. Without the evacuation perhaps as many as 30,000 deaths would have been attributed to Mt. St. Helens fury.

 

volcanoes10

 

The geologists in the photo are measuring a growing fissure near the lava dome in Mt. St. Helens crater. As magma rises the fissure will grow wider telling the geologists that the magma is rising again.

Scientists can not stop a volcano from erupting but with constant monitoring they can warn and evacuate people and save lives.

 

Many volcanoes erupt in very consistant patterns, while other volcanoes have no eruption pattern at all. This makes forecasting eruptions difficult.

What makes predicting eruptions even more difficult is the fact that many volcanoes start with one type of eruption pattern and then change eruption patterns as they grow older.

Some of the most powerful eruptions in recorded time have come from volcanoes that have been dormant for hundreds and even thousands of years.

 

volcanoes11

 

Here we have geologists studying a tilt meter. A tilt meter is used to measure the growth of the lavadome in the foreground. The tiltmeter will show a different angle as the dome grows. With careful study the geologists can tell if magma is on the rise and that an eruption may occur in the near future.

 

Write your answers to the following questions on a sheet of paper. Click on the Earth icon after you have finished to allow the next group to begin the lesson. You can click on page titles located directly under the questions to go back into the lesson to find the answers.

 

1. At what type of plate boundaries do volcanoes form?

 

2. What are the two definitions for the term volcano.

 

3. Write definitions in your own word for the following terms:

a) Active Volcano

b) Dormant Volcano

c) Extinct Volcano

Volcanic Terms Lesson #6

terms1

 

The volcanic mountain in this picture is Mayo Volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Mayon is a beautiful example of a stratovolcano.

 

terms2 


This is a model of the interior and exterior of a stratovolcano. The letters represent important terms that you need to know to understand how volcanoes are formed and how they work.

 

terms3


The letter A represents a magma chamber. Magma is molten rock that is located under the surface of the Earth. A magma chamber is usually located far beneath the surface of the Earth where an oceanic plate is driven down into the mantle by a continental plate. The oceanic plate melts as it desends into the upper layer of the mantle. Some ocean water gets trapped with the oceanic plate and is turned into steam by the intense heat.

The magma is less dense and under extreme pressures that force it up toward the surface. This molten rock and gas collects in a magma chamber until it can escape to the surface.

 

terms4


The letter B represents a Dike. Stratovolcanoes are built by many alternating eruptions of lava and ash. The magma below and inside the mountain exerts a lot of pressure on the crust and on the volcano itself. The magma pushes its way through small cracks in the crust and finally reaches the surface. This causes a dike to be produced.

A dike is an intrusion of magma that cuts through layers of already existing rock.

 

terms5


The letter C represents a Side vent. When the magma reaches the surface of the Earth it is then called lava. The lava leaving the side vent causes the volcano to add a layer of lava and usually a layer of ash with each eruption. These eruptions build the volcano higher and wider. Hawaii has volcanoes with many side vents that have built the islands with very wide bases. Some volcanoes on the other hand have few or no side vents. The materials that makes up the magma (gases, minerals, steam) determines how the magma will arrive at the surface. You will learn more about magma and lava in the next lesson "Lava Flows and Pyroclasts".

 

terms6


The letter D represents a conduit. A conduit is the main tube or pathway for the magma to reach the surface.

Devils Tower in Wyoming is an example of a cooled and hardened conduit.

 

terms7


This is a photo of Devils Tower National Monument. Devils Tower in Wyoming is an ancient conduit. The source for the magma moved and the magma in the conduit cooled and hardened into a very hard lava rock called basalt. The volcanic cone was made of softer volcanic materials probably ash and pumice that slowly eroded away leaving only the conduit standing. Today we know this ancient conduit as Devils Tower National Monument.

 

terms8


The letter E represents the crater and main vent of a volcano. The crater is the bowl shaped opening located at the top of the volcano. The crater is also the steep sided walls made of hardened lava that surround the main vent. Lava can flow from the main vent, but not all volcanoes eject large amounts of lava. Some volcanoes explode molten rock and huge amounts of gas from the main vent.

Volcanoes are not always erupting and the crater may be a bubbling caldron of lava without enough pressure to erupt.

 

terms9


This photograph is of a volcanic cone. The crater is located at the top. The side vent is active and a lava flow is running down the side of the cone. A fissure is bringing the magma to the side vent. This photo is courtesy of Dr. Scott Rowland of the University of Hawaii.

 

terms10

 

You are looking at the inside of a volcanic crater. The steep walls were produced be many eruptions ejecting very liquid lava. This lava then lands on the crater walls building them higher and higher. The lava in the main vent is extremely hot (probably about 1800 degrees F.) The lava on top cools and hardens because the air that it is in contact with is so much cooler than the lava. This hardened lava will then be dragged back down under the surface and remelted. You probably noticed the same process if you have ever heated soup on the stove. If you did not keep stirring the soup it formed a "scum" on top.

 

terms11


The letter F represents layers of tuff and lava. When a volcano erupts it may eject lava, lava rock and ash. When stratovolcanoes are built some of the lava and ash lands and stays on the volcano building it higher and higher with each eruption. The ash hardens into a rock that is called tuff.

 

Write your answers to the following questions on a sheet of paper. 

 

terms12


Label the following parts of a volcano by writing your answers on a sheet of paper.

 

A.

 

B.

 

C.

 

D.

 

E.

 

F.

 

Chapter 2 Copymaster: Test, Reviews, Answer Keys, Chapter Schedule

Chapter #2 Copymaster includes tests and answers for students and teachers on material covered in Chapter 2.

Select options on the right hand side to proceed. 

Baseball Game

Materials:


  • One die
  • One baseball diamond transparency
  • Four markers for the runners


Instructions

Break your class into two teams.
Ask a student a question. If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. (See rules below) If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

Rules for the game


  1. Shake the die 
    1. single
    2. double
    3. triple
    4. home run
    5. single
    6. single

  2. Ask the question-If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. Place a marker on the base that they earned. If there is a runner on base ahead of them move the runner the same amount of bases as the batter. If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

  3. Keep rolling and asking questions until a player answers incorrectly. When they answer incorrectly switch batting teams.

Chapter 2 Review

Chapter Review 

Chapter 2
Earthquakes and Volcanoes


  1. What is a Tsunami?




  2. Explain the difference between a focus and an epicenter.




  3. Name the three types of earthquake waves.




  4. What is magnitude and how is it related to the Richter Scale?




  5. What is an fault?




  6. What are the two definitions for a volcano?




  7. What is the difference between active, dormant, and extinct volcanoes.

  8. What is the difference between magma and lava?




  9. Label the following diagram




    A._____

    B._____

    C._____

    D._____

    E._____

    F._____

  10. Name and describe the 3 ways that volcanoes form.






  11. What causes earthquakes to occur?




  12. Where do the majority of earthquakes occur?




  13. What causes volcanoes to grow larger?




Chapter 2 Review Answer Key

Chapter Review 

Chapter 2
Earthquakes and Volcanoes


  • What is a Tsunami? A seismic seawave produced by a volcanic eruption, an underwater landslide, or an earthquake. They sometimes reach heights of over 50 feet. They are also called tidal waves. 

  • Explain the difference between a focus and an epicenter. The focus is the actual point of rock breakage or movement. the focus is usually located far below the surface of the Earth. The epicenter is the point on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus.

  • Name the three types of earthquake waves. Compression or P waves, Shear or S waves, and Surface waves.

  • What is magnitude and how is it related to the Richter Scale?
    Magnitude is the measure of the strength of the seismic waves that have been sent out from the focus. Richter scale is a number used to measure the strength of an earthquake. A Richter scale measurement of 1-5 is of low intesity and 6-9 is of high intensity.

  • What is an fault? A long crack in the Earth's crust. Earthquakes occur along such cracks.

  • What are the two definitions for a volcano? 1) An opening in the Earth's crust in which molten rock and gases can escape. 2) The mountain built by repeated eruptions of lava, or pyroclasts or, both lava and pyroclasts. 

  • What is the difference between active, dormant, and extinct volcanoes. Active volcanoes are either currently erupting or have erupted in recorded history. Dormant volcanoes are not currently erupting but are considered likely to do so. Extinct volcanoes have not erupted in current history and are not considered likey to do so.

  • What is the difference between magma and lava? Magma is molten rock under the Earth's surface. Lava is molten rock on the Earth's surface.

  • Label the following diagram

    A. Magma chamber

    B. Dike

    C. Side vent

    D. Conduit

    E. Crater

    F. Layers of lava and ash



  • Name and describe the 3 ways that volcanoes form.
    1. Volcanoes can form at subduction zones where two plates collide, one being driven down into the mantle and the other riding over the top. This causes the lithospheric plate to melt and being less dense than the rock in the mantle it will rise. This rising magma will produce a volcano.
    2. Volcanoes can form at a mid-ocean ridge. When the two plates separate magma fills the void and a volcano is produced. These chains of volcanic mountains are the longest mountain chain in the world.  
    3. Volcanoes can also form at a hot spot.


  • What causes earthquakes to occur? 
    Earthquakes occur because the Earth's plate are in motion. The plates do not move smoothly and evenly. Great stresses build up along the plate boundaries. When a plate moves suddenly a great amount of energy is released in the form of wave energy. These waves are what cause the damage from an earthquake.

  • Where do the majority of earthquakes occur?  
    Along plate boundaries. The main earthquake zones are the Circum-Pacific belt that stretches around the rim of the Pacific Ocean and the Alpide Belt in Europe and Asia.


  • What causes volcanoes to grow larger?  
    Volcanoes grow larger from their eruptions. When avolcano erupts it ejects lava, or pyroclasts, or both that builds the cone larger and larger.


  • Chapter 2 Student Vocabulary

    Vocabulary Chapter 2
    Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    Name____________________


    Lesson 4- Earthquakes

    1. Earthquake-



    2. Earthquake belts-
      • Circum-Pacific belt-


      • Alpide belt-


      • Fault-



    3. Focus-



    4. Epicenter-



    5. Earthquake Waves-
      • Compression-



      • Shear-



      • Surface-



    6. Magnitude-


      Lesson 4 continued
    7. Richter Scale-



    8. Seismograph-



    9. Strike-slip Fault/ San Andreas Fault



    10. Tsunami-





      Lesson 5
    11. 2 definitions of volcano- 







    12. Paricutin-



    13. Active Volcano-


    14. Dormant Volcano-

    15. Extinct Volcano-



    16. Lava Dome-



    17. Viscous-



    18. 3 ways that volcanoes form 1. Subduction Zone Volcanoes-



      1. Rift Zone Volcanoes-



      2. Hot Spot Volcanoes-



    19. Tilt Meter-





      Lesson 6
    20. Magma-


    21. Magma Chamber-


    22. Fissure-

    23. Dike-



    24. Side Vent-



    25. Lava-



    26. Conduit-



    27. Main Vent-



    28. Crater-



    29. Tuff

    Chapter 2 Teacher Vocabulary

    Vocabulary Chapter 2
    Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    Name____________________


    Lesson 4- Earthquakes

    1. Earthquake- 
      A sudden movement of the Earth's plates that can cause destruction. Earthquakes occur at plate boundaries when built up pressures in rocks suddenly release causing the plates to move along a fault line.

    2. Earthquake belts-
      A) Circum-Pacific belt-Encircles the outer rim of the Pacific Ocean. This area is the most active for earthquakes and volcanoes in the world.

      B) Alpide belt-
      This earthquake belt runs from Western Europe to Central Asia.

    3. Fault-
      A long crack in the Earth's crust.

    4. Focus-
      The place in the Earth's crust where an earthquake occurs. This is usually found deep under the surface of the Earth.

    5. Epicenter-
      The place on the Earth's surface directly above the focus.

    6. Earthquake Waves-
      Also called seismic waves. They are caused by the rapid release of energy caused by movements in the Earth's crust.

      A) Compression waves-
      First and fastest waves produced in an earthquake. They are also called P (Primary) waves. They move in a jackhammer motion.

      B) Shear waves
      Second waves to strike an area. Also called S (Secondary) waves. They travel slower than P waves. They move in an up and down roller coaster motion. 

      Lesson 4 continued

      C) Surface waves-
      These are the last waves to strike an area. They are the slowest waves and are confined to the surface of the Earth. They produce the most damage to man made materials. There are two kinds of surface waves; 1. Love waves and Rayleigh Waves.

    7. Magnitude-
      Measurement of the intensity of an earthquake.

    8. Richter Scale-
      Scale used to identify the strength of an earthquake. Richter scale runs from 1-9. Earthquakes with a 6 or above rating are considered powerful.

    9. Seismograph-
      A graph showing the length and severity of an earthquake.

    10. Strike-
      slip Fault/ San Andreas Fault-A strike-slip fault is located at a transverse plate boundary. The two plates slide by each other moving in opposite directions. 

    11. Tsunami
      A very large wave produced from earthquakes, volcanic activity, or an under water landslide. These waves produce 30-100 foot high crests as they break onto the shoreline. They can produce enormous damage to seaside communities.


      Lesson 5
    12. 2 definitions of volcano- 
      1. An opening in the surface of the Earth that allows lava, gas, 
        and pyroclastic material to reach the surface.

      2. The mountain built by repeated eruptions of a volcano. 

    13. Paricutin-
      A volcano in Mexico. This volcano was produced in a farmers field in 1943 and built a 1300 foot cinder cone over 9 years. The volcano was name for the village that was destroyed by a large lava flow from its namesake.

    14. Active Volcano-
      A volcano that is currently erupting or has erupted in recorded time.

    15. Dormant Volcano-
      A volcano that is not erupting currently but has erupted in recorded time and is considered likely to do so again.

    16. Extinct Volcano-
      A volcano that has not erupted in recorded time and is not considered likely to do so.

    17. Lava Dome-
      A lava dome is a steep mass of very thick and pasty lava that is pushed up from the main vent.

    18. Viscosity-
      The thickness of lava and magma determine how the volcano will erupt, what type of lava flow will be formed, and what type of volcanic cone will form. Viscosity is the measure of how thick or thin the lava is. Thick magma or lava is said to have a high viscosity, while thin lava or magma is said to have low viscosity.

    19. 3 ways that volcanoes form 
      1. Subduction Zone Volcanoes-Form where two plate meet, one being driven down into the mantle. These are the most explosive volcanoes because as the plate is driven into the mantle ocean water is mixed into the magma causing the production of steam which makes the magma more explosive.

      2. Rift Zone Volcanoes-These are formed where two plates are separating, magma fills the void left by the divergent plates. These volcanic mountains form a chain that circles the Earth. It is the longest continuous mountain chain in the world, over 40,000 miles long.

      3. Hot Spot Volcanoes-They form where there is a upward flow of very hot solid rock coming from great depths in the mantle. The Hawaiian Islands and Yellowstone Caldera were formed from a volcanic hot spot as the plates moved over that particular hot spot. 

    20. Tilt Meter-
      Tool that measures the amount of change in the slope of a volcano or a lava dome. It is used to help predict an upcoming eruption. The movement of magma in a volcano is a sign that an eruption may be near.





      Lesson 6
    21. Magma-
      Molten rock under the surface of the Earth.

    22. Magma Chamber-
      A large mass of magma usually located far under the surface of the Earth.  

    23. Fissure-
      A long crack in the surface of the Earth that allows magma and gases to reach the surface.

    24. Dike-
      An intrusion of magma that becomes a passageway for magma. This passageway connects the conduit to the side vent. A dike runs through already existing layers of rock.

    25. Side Vent-
      A secondary opening in a volcano that allows magma to reach the surface of the Earth. It is usually located on the flanks of a volcanic cone.

    26. Lava-
      Molten rock that has reached the surface of the Earth.

    27. Conduit-
      The main passage for magma.

    28. Main Vent- 
      The main opening in a volcano. Located at the top of the conduit.

    29. Crater-
      The steep walled bowl shaped opening surrounding the main vent. This steep walled structure is formed by repeated eruptions of ash and lava.

    30. Tuff-
      The rock that is formed by the mixture of lava and ash. This is the rock that is formed on the sides of stratovolcanoes.

    Chapter 2 Test

    Test Chapter 2
    Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    Name____________________

      1. _____ Fault  A. gods and goddesses of ancient mythology
      2. _____Focus  B. Exact point of origin of an earthquake. Usually found deep under the surface of the Earth.
      3. _____ Magnitude  C. The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the earthquake.
      4. _____ Tsunami  D. Long crack in the crust of Earth.
      5. _____ Pele, Vulcan, and Kashima  E. measure of the strength of an earthquake
      6. _____ Epicenter  F. Seismic sea wave caused by an earthquake, hurricane, or underwater landslide.
      7. ___Compression-Shear-Surface  H. The three types of earthquake waves.






      8. _____Volcano  A. A volcano that has not erupted in recorded time and is not considered to do
      9. ____ Dormant Volcano  B. An opening in the surface of the Earth in which molten rock and gas can escape
      10._____Extinct Volcano  C. Bowl shaped depression located at the top of the main vent in a volcano
      12._____ Magma  D. Molten rock found under the surface of the Earth
      13._____Lava  E. A volcano that is resting 
      14._____Conduit  F. Molten rock found under the surface of the Earth
      15._____Crater  G. The main passageway for magma in a volcano

      16-21. Name the three ways that volcanoes form and describe the process of formation for each.
      16.







      17.





      18.




      19. Why do earthquakes occur?




      20. Where do most of the world's earthquakes occur?



      21. How does a volcano grow larger?


       

      Name the volcanic term for each letter.
      A._____ D._____  

      B._____ E._____

      C._____ F._____ 

    Chapter 2 Test Answer Key

    Test Chapter 2
    Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    Name____________________

    1.  ___D___ Fault  A. gods and goddesses of ancient mythology
    2.  ___B___Focus  B. The three types of earthquake waves.
    3.  ___E___Magnitude  C. The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the earthquake.
    4.  ___F___Tsunami  D. Long crack in the crust of Earth.
    5.  ___A___Pele, Vulcan, and Kashima  E. measure of the strength of an earthquake
    6.  ___C___ Epicenter  F. Seismic sea wave caused by an earthquake, hurricane, or underwater landslide.
    7.  ___B___Compression-Shear-Surface  H. Exact point of origin of an earthquake. Usually found deep under the surface of the Earth.



    9.  ___B___Volcano  A. A volcano that has not erupted in recorded time and is not considered to do
    10. ___E___Dormant Volcano  B. An opening in the surface of the Earth in which molten rock and gas can escape 
    11. ___A___Extinct Volcano  C. Bowl shaped depression located at the top of the main vent in a volcano
    12. ___F___Magma  D. Molten rock found on the surface of the Earth
    13. ___D___Lava  E. A volcano that is resting
    14. ___G___Conduit  F. Molten rock found under the surface of the Earth
    15. ___C___Crater  G. The main passageway for magma in a volcano


    16-21. Name the three ways that volcanoes form and describe the process of formation for each.

    1. Volcanoes can form at subduction zones where two plates collide, one being driven down into the mantle and the other riding over the top. This causes the lithospheric plate to melt and being less dense than the rock in the mantle it will rise. This rising magma will produce a volcano.

    2. Volcanoes can form at a mid-ocean ridge. When the two plates separate magma fills the void and a volcano is produced. These chains of volcanic mountains are the longest mountain chain in the world.  

    3. Volcanoes can also form at a hot spot.



    22. Why do earthquakes ocurr? Earthquakes occur because the Earth's plate are in motion. The plates do not move smoothly and evenly. Great stresses build up along the plate boundaries. When a plate moves suddenly a great amount of energy is released in the form of wave energy. These waves are what cause the damage from an earthquake.

    23. Where do most of the world's earthquakes occur? Along plate boundaries. The main earthquake zones are the Circum-Pacific belt that stretches around the rim of the Pacific Ocean and the Alpide Belt in Europe and Asia.

    24. How does a volcano grow larger? Volcanoes grow from their eruptions. When avolcano erupts it ejects lava, or pyroclasts, or both that builds the cone larger and larger.


     
    Name the volcanic term for each letter.
    A. Magma Chamber D. Conduit 

    B. Dike E. Crater

    C. Side Vent F. Layers of lava and ash

    Lesson #4 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

    Goals, Objectives and Materials
    For Lesson #4
    "Earthquakes-The Rolling Earth"

    Goals:

    To familiarize students with the processes that cause earthquakes.

    Objectives: 

    The students will:

    1. Become familar with and be able to demostrate how earthquake waves are produced;

    2. Become familar with the different types of fault zones;

    3. Become familar with the causes of earthquakes.


    Materials: 

    1. One copy of the Content Lesson #4 for each student

    2. Plastic Table
    3. Three cups of sand
    4. Rubber Mallet
    5. Jump Rope
    6. Slinky

    Lesson #5 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

    Goals, Objectives and Materials
    For Lesson #5
    "Volcanoes"

    Goal:

    To familiarize students with the processes that cause volcanoes to form.


    Objectives: 

    The students will:

    1. Become familar with the 3 ways that volcanoes form;

    2. Become familar with legends and myths associated with volcanoes;

    3. Become familar with and be able to use vocabulary associated with volcanism


    Materials: 

    1. One copy of the Content Lesson #5 for each student

    2. Toothpaste in a tube
    3. Cardboard
    4. scissors
    5. 1 plastic bottle of seltzer of soda
    6. 1 small bottle of food coloring

    Lesson #6 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

    Goals, Objectives and Materials
    For Lesson #6
    "Volcanic Terms"

     

    Goals:

    To familiarize students with the vocabulary associated with volcanic processes and the basic structure of a volcano itself.

    Objectives: 

    The students will:

    1. Become familiar with the processes and concepts that create and build volcanoes;
    2. Become familiar with the vocabulary terms associated with volcanic processes;

    Materials: 


    1. Hands-On Lesson Plan Sheet

    2. Five colors of modeling clay or playdough-Red, Brown, Gray, Black, Blue

    3. 10 X 12 sheets of tag board

    4. Felt tip pen for labeling

    5. Thick Thread

    Lesson #4 Content Center

    Content Center 

    (Earthquakes-The Rolling Earth) 

    (Lesson #4) 

    The San Andreas Fault

    The San Andreas fault runs through the state of California from the Mexican border northward to the city of San Francisco. The cities of San Diego and Los Angeles lay on west side of the fault, which is actually the Pacific Plate. San Francisco lays on the east side of the fault, which is the North American Plate. (See map #1)  
    The North American Plate is a very large plate which consists of the west side of the Atlantic Ocean, Greenland, and all of the North American continent except the part of California west of the San Andreas fault. This plate is moving west at about 1 inch per year. The Pacific Plate is also a very large plate that is moving north northwest at an astonishing rate of over 3 inches per year. Many earthquakes are recorded on the San Andreas fault each year as these two plates slide by each other. Another interesting fact is that Los Angeles which is about 375 miles southeast of San Francisco today is moving north toward San Francisco. In about 100 million years Los Angeles will actually be north of San Francisco if the plates keep moving at the same speed and direction that they are today. (See map #2)
    The San Andreas fault has been studied thoroughly because of it's location so close to many major cities and universities. The San Andreas fault is located directly on the surface of the Earth which makes it easy to view and study. It can be seen riding in a car, walking on a hike, and an even better view can be seen from an airplane. The effects of the movement on the fault line are seen in crooked or offset fences, roadways, stream beds and railroad tracks.
    The San Andreas fault is a strike-slip fault.  Strike-slip faults are not collision faults like subduction zones and they are not separating plate zones like mid-ocean ridges. A strike-slip fault is a plate boundary where two plates slide past each other. See diagram 1 below. Diagram 1 (Courtesy of FEMA) 

    Tsunamis
    A tsunami is a large water wave that is formed by a volcanic eruption, underwater earthquake, landslide, or a hurricane. Tsunamis are the most dangerous of all the wave types. Tsunamis have the potential to reach heights of 120 feet (Krakatoa's eruption of 1883) and speeds of over 500 miles per hour. When the wave is far out at sea it can go unnoticed because almost all of the wave stays under the surface of the ocean. When the waves reaches the shallow water of the coastline the height of the wave grows to its fullest and then crashes down on the land.  
    Tsunamis have killed thousands of people. When Krakatoa erupted in 1883 it sent out a tsunami that killed 36,000 people. The great Alaskan earthquake in 1964 sent out a tsunami that killed over 60 people in Hilo, Hawaii.  

    Thought and Discussion Questions 

    1. Describe in your own words what a fault is.


    2. How is a strike-slip boundary different from a collision and separation boundary?


    3. What is a tsunami?


    4. How does a tsunami form?

    Lesson #5 Content Center

    Content Center 

    (Lesson #5)
    Volcanoes
    "The Lost Continent of Atlantis"

    Have you ever heard of the lost continent of Atlantis? Where was the lost continent of Atlantis? Historians have speculated that it was in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, off of the coasts of both Spain and France, and also in the western Mediterranean Sea. We do not know for sure where it was, but in 1956 a Greek seismologist by the name of Angelos Galanopoulos suggested that the great continent was located in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. More specifically south of Greece on the island of Santorini, which was called Thera in 1650 B.C. He believed a great volcanic eruption was the end to this wonderful civilization.



    Plato, a great Greek poet and historian, was fascinated with an ancient Egyptian story of a fantastic civilization which was lost during a terrible catastrophe. 
    Plato called this civilization Atlantis. He depicted Atlantis as the greatest civilization of its time. The people were famous for their beauty and their culture. Plato wrote about this beautiful place one thousand years after it was destroyed. His writings were based on ancient Egyptian writings and his translation of the language was questionable.  
    Plato made a mistake in his math!!! He claimed the lost continent to be about ten times the size that it actually was. He also put the time of the calamity to be about 9000 years before the rise of the great Athenian empire, which was about 10 times earlier than it could have really occurred. Historians now believe that Atlantis was destroyed about 900 years before Athens. A factor of ten was the problem with Plato's accounts, ten times too large and ten times too early.  
    What happened to wipe this superior civilization off the face of the Earth? A great volcanic eruption was the cause. A volcano named Santorini exploded with such fury that it not only blew most of the island into the heavens but also caused a huge tsunami that wiped out many of the neighboring civilizations.  
    When Santorini erupted, much of the volcanic cone exploded into the atmosphere and over 32 square miles of the island was destroyed. What happened next was the formation of a caldera. A caldera is a bowl shaped depression caused by the magma chamber under the volcano emptying during an eruption and the volcano falling into the magma chamber because of its own weight. When the caldera formed, a series of tsunamis produced by the crashing of the top of the volcano wiped out many cities and towns in the eastern Mediterranean. This tsunami was reported to have reached the height of over 300 feet. The explosion was heard as far away as Sweden, and the earthquakes produced knocked down walls in Crete over 100 miles away!! Historians believe these giant sea waves were what caused the mysterious end of the great Minoan civilization in the Mediterranean. 
    Archaeologists have recovered artifacts from the island lately that show a great ancient civilization was present on Thera about 3800 years ago. The artifacts have come from the sunken part of the island far under the surface of the sea. This evidence helps us to believe that Santorini may be the "Lost Continent of Atlantis"!!!!

    Questions

    1. What caused great civilizations in the Mediterranean to disappear about 1650 B.C.?




    2. What is a caldera?




    3. What caused the production of a huge tsunami over 300 feet tall?







    Lesson #4 Hands-on Center

    Hands-On Center
    (Earthquakes-The Rolling Earth)
    Lesson #4
    Earthquake Waves
    Shock Waves

    Materials: 

    1. Plastic Table
    2. Three cups of sand
    3. Rubber Mallet







    1. The students will pour three cups of sand on the top of a plastic table near the edge.  
      They will tap the table lightly with the rubber mallet. When they tap the table lightly they will see the sand "jump" into the air.  
      The teacher should explain that as rocks snap and break at the focus of an earthquake shock waves are sent out in all directions. The "jumping sand" represents the release of the energy from the hammer through the plastic table.  
    2. The students should move the sand farther away from the point of contact and see what happens.  
      The farther away the sand is from the source of energy (tapping of rubber mallet) the less the sand jumps. This represents the fact that the farther you are from 
      the epicenter the less you will feel the earthquakes shock waves.
    3. The students should move the sand to the opposite side of the table and tap lightly. They should observe a very small movement of the sand.

    4. Shear Waves
      Materials: Jump Rope
      Two students will hold the ends of the jump rope and raise their hands up and down shaking the jump rope and producing S waves. The waves in the jump rope will have an up and down motion.  

      The teacher will explain that the S waves of an earthquake look like the waves produced by the shaking of the jump rope. These are secondary waves and they will learn more about these in the lesson "Earthquakes-The Rolling Earth" on the computer.

      Compression Waves
      Materials: 
      1. Slinky


      Two students will hold the Slinky at the two ends pulling and stretching it slightly. One student will push the Slinky 
      slowly watching the Compression wave as it rolls from one end of the Slinky to the other. The teacher will explain that the waves produced with the Slinky are like Compression or Primary waves of an earthquake. The students will learn more about compression waves in the lesson "Earthquakes- The Rolling Earth" on the computer.

    Lesson #5 Hands-on Center

    Hands-on Center 

    (Volcanoes)
     Lesson #5

    Erupting Volcano


    Materials: 

    1. 3 small plastic bottles of seltzer of soda
    2. 1 small bottle of food coloring


    The teacher should conduct the following experiment. Wearing safety goggles and old clothing is advised. The experiment could ruin clothing and hurt unprotected eyes. Follow the steps below having the students write down what they observe and hear.

    1. Show the students the bottle before it is opened explaining that the gases dissolved in the liquid are under much more pressure than gases outside the bottle. As the bottle is opened the gas (Carbon Dioxide) will be visible as it escapes creating bubbles and a hissing sound.

    2. add 3 drops of red food coloring


    1. put the plastic cap back on the bottle 
    2. shake the bottle profusely hold the bottle over a sink or drain- tell the students that the liquid inside the bottle represents magma, which is molten rock and gas inside the Earth.  

    3. turn the cap slowly allowing the "lava" to erupt-tell the students that as magma escapes to the surface it is then called lava.  

    The teacher should explain that the liquid has dissolved gases in it (Carbon Dioxide), just as magma has many dissolved gases in it.  

    When the bottle is not open the students will not be able to see the gas because the liquid has the gas disolved in it. Because of the higher pressure in the bottle you can not see the gas bubbles. When the bottle is opened the students will see the gas escape. The liquid will erupt out with the gas because it is under more pressure than the outside environment. When magma rises in the conduit the pressure falls as it nears the surface of the Earth. The lava will escape violently as the pressure drops for the same reasons that the soda water escaped with the carbon dioxide gas. When a volcano erupts the lava may be very frothy from the escaping gases. This is true especially if the magma has a high gas content. The most violent eruptions are due to a great build up of pressure from magma that has a high gas content. Magmas with little dissolved gas usually do not erupt violently.

    Lava Dome Building 


    Materials: 

    1. Toothpaste in a tube
    2. Cardboard
    3. scissors


    Cut a hole in the cardboard so that the neck of the opened toothpaste tube fits into the hole. Squeeze the tube lightly so that a little toothpste comes out then stop. Explain that the toothpaste is very thick and pasty like dactitic lava is. This is the same lava that has built the lava dome in the crater in Mt. St. Helens. Squeeze the tube again and stop, explaining that the dome was built very slowly with these same starting and stopping motions. The dome grew for seven years and has basically halted its growth as of 8/20/95.  
    The dome that is in the crater in Mt. St. helens today is not the only dome that has occupied this space. Another dome grew during the first month after the original eruption but blew up in June of 1980.  
    Continue the same pattern of squeezing and stopping until the students understand the concept of dome growth.

    Lesson #6 Hands-on Center

    Hands-On Center 

    (Volcanic Terms-Lesson #6)

    A Model of a Strato Volcano

    Materials: 

    1. Five colors of modeling clay or playdough-Red, Brown, Gray, Black, Blue
    2. Thumb Tacks
    3. 10 X 12 sheets of tag board
    4. Felt tip pen for labeling
    5. Thick Thread


    There will be no Content Lesson today because the Hands-On lesson will take at least a half-hour.
    The students will build a volcano model on tag board. The students will add lava and ash layers one by one simulating the process that builds a real strato volcano cone.  
    The students will start by building the upper layer of the mantle and lower crust with a magma chamber and conduit like the diagram below.


    The students will then start to build the strato volcano model by rolling "snakes" that will represent the alternating layers of hardened lava (Black clay)and ash (Gray clay). They will need to add an extension to the conduit (Red clay) with each set of layers added. As they build the volcano higher have the students add a fissure (Red clay) and a lava flow (Red clay) down the flank of the cone.
    When the students are finished making the model have them label it by writing the following terms on the tag board and connecting the terms to the model with pins. (See Diagram below)

    Discussion Questions

    Lesson 4 "Earthquakes-The Rolling Earth" 


     

    Thought and Discussion Questions 

    1. Describe in your own words what a fault is.

    2. How is a strike-slip boundary different from a convergent and divergent boundary?


    3. What is a tsunami?

    4. How does a tsunami form?

    Hyperstudio Questions
    1. How are earthquake waves produced?

    2. What does a Richter Scale show?


    3. What are the differences between compression, shear, and surface  
    waves?



    Lesson #5 Volcanoes
    Discussion Questions #5
    1. What caused the death of so many people during the second eruption of Vesuvius?

    2. What is a pyroclastic flow?

    Hyper Studio Questions #5
    1. Where do volcanoes form?

    2. What are the two definitions for the term volcano.

    3. Write definitions in your own word for the following terms:
    a) Active Volcano-
    b) Dormant Volcano-
    c) Extinct Volcano-

     
    Lesson #6 Volcanic Terms
    No Content Lesson Today
    Hyperstudio Questions
    Label the following parts of a volcano by writing your answers on a sheet of paper.
    A.  
    B.  
    C. 
    D.  
    E.  
    F.  


    Discussion Questions Answer Key

    Answer Key 

    Discussion and Hyperstudio Questions


     
     
     

    Lesson 4 "Earthquakes-The Rolling Earth" 


    Thought and Discussion Questions 

    1. Describe in your own words what a fault is.
    A fault is a long crack in the crust of the Earth. They can be associated with plate boundaries or can be produced from earthquakes. 

    2. How is a strike-slip boundary different from a convergent and divergent boundary?
    A strike-slip boundary occurs where two plates are sliding past each other in opposite directions. It is like a tear in the crust of the Earth.
    A convergent boundary occurs where two plates collide. Sometimes one plate is driven under the other, other times the two plates force themselves up into high mountains. 
    A divergent boundary occurs where two plates are separating. The two plates are moving in opposite directions causing new crust to be formed. These occur at mid-ocean ridges. 

    3. What is a tsunami?
    A tsunami is a very large sea wave. These waves can be up to 100 feet high when they break on the coastline. 
    4. How does a tsunami form?
    Tsunamis are caused by 1) an earthquake 2) an underwater landslide 3) or a volcanic eruption.
    Hyperstudio Questions
    1. How are earthquake waves produced?
    When an earthquake occurs the energy produced from the movement of the plates of the Earth radiates out from the focus in the form of seismic waves. 

    2. What does a Richter Scale show?
    The Richter scale is a measure of the strength and length of time that earthquake lasts. 

    3. What are the differences between compression, shear, and surface  
    waves?
    Compression waves are the fastest waves produced from an earthquake. Because of their speed they arrive at the surface first and are also called P (Primary) waves. They hit the surface with a pounding or jackhammer motion.
    Shear waves are about half the speed of P waves. They arrive later and thus called S (Secondary) waves. They hit the surface with a rolling, up and down motion.  
    Surface waves are the last waves to strike the surface and are confined to the upper layers of the Earth. The are the slowest waves and cause the most damage. There are two kinds of surface waves Love and Rayleigh waves.  



    Lesson #5 Volcanoes
    Discussion Questions #5
    1. What caused the death of so many people during the second eruption of Vesuvius?
    The pyroclastic flow of very hot steam, gas, and ash. The flow was probably over 700 degrees and moving at a rate of over 70 miles per hour. 
    2. What is a pyroclastic flow?
    A very turbulent mixture of steam, gases, ash, and small pieces of rock that is heavier than air and moves at a high rates of speed. Some pyroclastic flows are over 900 degrees F. with speeds in excess of 100 miles per hour. 

    Hyper Studio Questions #5
    1. Where do volcanoes form?
    Volcanoes form at subduction zones, mid-ocean or rift zones, and at hot spots 
    2. What are the two definitions for the term volcano.
    1) A volcano is an opening in the Earth's surface in which molten rock called magma and gases can escape. 2) The mountain that is formed by repeated volcanic eruptions. 
    3. Write definitions in your own word for the following terms:
    a) Active Volcano-A volcano that is currently erupting or has erupted in recorded time. 
    b) Dormant Volcano-A volcano that is not currently erupting but has erupted in recorded time and is considered likely to do so again. 
    c) Extinct Volcano-A volcano that has not erupted in recorded time and is not likely to do so. 

    Lesson #6 Volcanic Terms
    No Content Lesson Today
    Hyperstudio Questions
    Label the following parts of a volcano by writing your answers on a sheet of paper.
    A.  Magma Chamber 
    B.  Dike 
    C.  Side Vent 
    D.  Conduit 
    E.  Crater 
    F.  Layers of lava and ash 


    Chapter 3 Cones, Eruptions, and Pyroclasts

    Chapter 3 focuses on Cones, Eruptions, and Pyroclasts, looking at products of volcanic eruptions and hotspot volcanoes.

    Lessons included in this chapter:

    #7 Lava Flows and Pyroclasts

    #8 Volcanic Cones and Eruptions

    #9 Hotspot Volcanoes - Hawaii and Yellowstone.

    Resources for Teachers can be found under the Chapter #3 Copymaster.

    Select from the options on the right to proceed.

    Lava Flows and Pyroclasts Lesson #7

    Lava is melted rock that has reached the Earth's surface through a volcano's main vent or through side vents and fissures.

    Some volcanoes produce little or no lava. Some volcanoes eject pyroclasts, which are fragmented or broken rock. The word pyroclastic comes from a Greek word that means "Rock broken by fire".

    When volcanoes do produce lava flows they are classified as either Pahoehoe or Aa. The lava is identical in both pahoehoe and aa lava flows, the difference comes from the amount of lava erupted and the speed of cooling. Pahoehoe lava flows are produced from a small amount of lava that moves slowly, while aa flows usually are associated with a large volume of lava that moves swiftly. Aa flows are generally 6-15 feet thick and pahoehoe flows are usually 1-3 feet thick.

    flows1 

    If the lava is very hot and has a low viscosity (runny with a low gas and silica content) the lava flow is called Pahoehoe. If, on the other hand, the lava has a high viscosity (thick and pasty with a high gas and silica content) it is called Aa.

    Silica is a white or colorless crystal that is present in sand and quartz. It is one of the most abundant compounds in the Earth's crust.

     

    flows2

     

    The photograph shows a pahoehoe flow on the left and an aa flow on the right.

     

    flows3


    Pahoehoe (Pa-Hoy-Hoy) lava flows are very hot, thin and runny. When it cools is has a smooth to ropey texture because of the low silica content which makes it cool quickly.

    Pahoehoe flows creep along generally at less than 3 feet per minute but some flows have been measured at over 20 miles per hour. The terms pahoehoe and aa are from the native Hawaiian language and are now used by geologists the world over.

     

    flows4


    This pahoehoe flow is advancing on the skeleton of a large mammal perhaps a horse or a cow. The lava will engulf the animal and may fossilize the remains!!

    Notice how the flow advances in globs of lava. These globs of lava are called lobes.

     

    flows5


    Aa lava flows are formed when the lava is produced in a manner that allows it to cool quickly. When a fire fountain shoots the lava high into the air it cools somewhat before it can flow after landing on the surface. Aa lava also forms when there is a huge amount of lava produced or a steep slope moves the lava at high speeds. These high speeds put the lava in greater contact with the air, which makes it cool more quickly.

    Notice the rough and fragmented upper surface of the photo at the left. Would you like to walk barefoot on this after it cools?

     

    flows6


    A pahoehoe lava flow produced the lava tube in the picture above.

    A lava tube forms when the lava on the outer surface of the flow cools much faster than the inside of the flow. The outside becomes cooled hardened lava rock while the inside stays molten and also keeps flowing. If something happens to stop the flowing lava there will be nothing to fill the void and a tube is the result.

     

    flows7


    No, this is not a North Dakota blizzard. This photo is showing the ash fall from Mt. Pinatubo's (Phillipines) eruption in 1992. Many inches of ash fell and the U.S. Naval and Air Force bases near the mountain were closed because of the eruption.

    When Mt. St. Helens erupted in 1980 the ash cloud rose to an altitude of over 50,000 feet, that is almost 10 miles high! The mountain kept spewing ash for another nine hours on May 18th. The ash deposits were many inches deep in many cities in Washington. This ash choked humans and animals. People were forced to wear gas masks so they could go outside of their homes.

    Pyroclasts are particles that are ejected during a volcanic eruption. They range in size from very small particles called dust to ash (1/10 of an inch) to lapilli ("little stones" 1/10 of an inch to 2 inches ) to the largest of the pyroclasts, blocks and bombs (2 inches to many feet in diameter).

    Volcanic Ash is any very fine grained material erupted from a volcano that is less than 1/10 of an inch (2 millimeters) in diameter. This is very fine material and was given the name ash because it resembles ashes from the burning of wood or coal.

    Volcanic ash is rock that has been exploded and shattered by steam inside the volcano. Ash and lava flows build stratovolcanoes into mountains with repeated eruptions.

     

    flows8


    Pyroclastic flows are spinning mixtures of pyroclasts (small pieces of obsidian, ash, pumice, and cinders) and very hot gases. They flow down the side of the volcano at speeds up to 100 miles per hour and at temperatures sometimes over 700 degrees Fahrenheit!! With temperatures that high pyroclastic flows kill everything it their path.

    There were two pyroclastic flows from Mt. St. Helens main eruption in 1980. The first flow was called the "stone wind" and it annihilated everything in its path. Huge trees over one hundred feet tall were snappped and splintered like twigs. Temperatures of over 700 degrees ate up all the oxygen in the area. All animal life in its path was destroyed in seconds including 57 humans. Later in the day another pyroclastic flow piled pumice and ash in thick deposits for many miles around the mountain.

    The photo above is a pyroclastic flow down the north flank of Mt. St. Helens.

     

    flows9


    Pumice is a very light colored, frothy volcanic rock. Pumice is formed from lava that is full of gas. The lava is ejected and shot through the air during an eruption. As the lava hurtles through the air it cools and the gases escape leaving the rock full of holes.

    Pumice is so light that it actually floats on water. Huge pumice blocks have been seen floating on the ocean after large eruptions. Some lava blocks are large enough to carry small animals.

    Pumice is ground up and used today in soaps, abrasive cleansers, and also in polishes.

     

    flows10


    Bombs and blocks are the largest of the pyroclasts.

    Blocks are angular chunks of rock that has been ejected from a volcano during an eruption.

    The photo above is of a geologist studying pumice blocks from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens.

     

    flows11


    A bomb is formed as lava hurtles through the air, cooling and forming a hardened lava rock. A bomb's shape is usually more rounded or streamlined. Notice the teardrop shape of the bombs.

     

    flows12


    Obsidian is a very shiny natural volcanic glass. When obsidian breaks it fractures with a distinct conchoidal fracture. Notice in the photo to the left how it fractures. Obsidian is produced when lava cools very quickly. The lava cools so quickly tht no crystals can form.

    When people make glass they melt silica rocks like sand and quartz then cool it rapidly by placing it in water. Obsidian is produced in nature in a similar way.

    Obsidian is usually black or a very dark green, but it can also be found in an almost clear form.

    Ancient people throughout the world have used obsidian for arrowheads, knives, spearheads, and cutting tools of all kinds. Today, obsidian is used as a scapel by doctors in very sensitive eye operations.

     

    Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of paper. Use the page titles located directly under the questions to move your way through the lesson to locate the answers. When you have finished the questions click on the Earth icon to return to the start of the lesson.

    1. Describe pahoehoe and aa lava flows.

    2. What is a pyroclast and how do they form?

    3. Write a definiton for the following;

    - High viscosity

    - Low viscosity

    Volcanic Cones and Eruptions Lesson #8

    cones1

     

    The photo above is of Mt. St. Helens today. This once beautiful mountain was changed dramatically on May 18, 1980. The eruption that occurred was a Plinian eruption, which is the most violent eruption classification.

    As you learned in the last lesson, different magmas have varying amounts of silica and gas that cause the lava to either be thick and pasty or thin and runny. The thickness and thinness of the magma will determine how a volcano will erupt and what kind of a cone will form.

    Volcanoes will erupt for two reasons

    1. The magma deep under the crust is less dense than the surrounding rock causing it to rise.

    2. As the magma approaches the surface of the Earth the gas that is in the magma will come bubbling out because the pressure surrounding the magma will decrease nearer the surface.

     

    Have you ever had a can of soda pop explode all over the room? This "eruption" of pop is caused by the same scientific principle that causes a volcano to erupt violently. When you open the pop can the pressure is released so quickly that the gas that is dissolved in the pop comes rushing out along with some of the pop.

     

    cones2


    Volcanoes are classified by the eruption type and by the volcanic cone shape.

    There are three basic cone shapes and six eruption types. The three cone shapes are cinder cones, shield cones, and composite cones or stratovolcanoes.

     

    cones3

    cones4


    The six eruption types are in order from least explosive to the most explosive; Icelandic, Hawaiian, Strombolian, Vulcanian, Pelean, and Plinian.

    Notice how, as the eruptions become more violent, the cone shapes become more steeply constructed.

     

    You will read about these volcanic types in more depth later in the lesson.

     

    cones5


    Icelandic, flood, or fissure eruptions are all terms for volcanic eruptions that flood the surface of the Earth with massive amounts of very hot, very thin, runny lava. The lava comes out of the ground through long cracks in the surface called fissures. Some of these fissures can be up to 15 miles long.

    The type of cone produced from icelandic eruptions is a shield cone. Shield cones are very low and very broad shaped volcanoes. These volcanoes erupt many times over the same area forming huge, and thick lava plateaus.

    The Deccan Plateau of India was formed this way and covers 100,000 square miles (A little smaller than the state of Montana). The Columbia Plateau of the western United States is the largest lava plateau in the world. It covers almost 100,000 square miles and is almost a mile thick in places.

    The photo above is of Krafla Volcano on the island of Iceland.

     

    cones6


    Hawaiian eruptions are similar to Icelandic eruptions because both eruption types have many fissures bringing the lava to the surface. Both types of eruptions are known for their beautiful fire fountains like the one shown above. The lava that flows from both types of eruptions is very hot, thin, and runny which allows for fast flowing lava flows.

    The main difference lies in the fact that most Hawaiian eruptions have the greatest quantity of lava pouring out of the main vent at the volcano's summit, not along side fissures. These summit eruptions build the cone steeper and higher. The volcano above was formed from Hawaiian eruptions.

     

    cones7


    Shield cones were named by Icelandic people because the cone's shape reminded them of a warriors shield layed down. Shield cones form from hot, runny lava that is erupted from the the volcano through its summit and the many side vents and fissures throughout the volcano's flanks (Sides). Shield cones are low, very broad, and gently sloping volcanoes. The volcano pictured above is Mauna Kea, which is located on the big island of Hawaii.

    Mauna Loa, which is also on the big island, is the largest volcano on Earth and the tallest mountain in the world if measured from the floor of the ocean where it was formed. Mauna Loa is 13,677 feet above sea level but over 17,000 feet of mountain lies under the water. This volcanic mountain is over 30,000 feet tall from sea floor to the summit. Maua Loa started to form above the Hawaiian hot spot about one million years ago and broke the surface of the ocean about 500,000 years ago. 

     

    cones8


    Strombolian and Vulcanian eruptions are more explosive than Icelandic and Hawaiian eruptions.

    Strombolian eruptions are named for the volcanic island off of the coast of Italy. Stromboli has erupted over many centuries almost constantly. Stromboli has been named the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean" because it erupts every 20 minutes or so.

    Strombolian eruptions are short lived explosive eruptions that shoot very thick and pasty lava into the air along with bursts of steam and gas.

    Strombolian eruptions usually produce little or no lava. Because of this the cones that are produced by this type of eruption is a very steep sided cone called a cinder cone.

    The photo shows a strombolian eruption taking place from a cinder cone.

     

    cones9


    Cinder cones get their name from the material that forms them, cinders. Cinder cones are the simplest volcanic formation. They form from explosions of red, hot magma cinders and ash. These cinders and ash settle around the main vent and build a steep sided cone. Very little lava is erupted from a cinder cone. Cinder cones very rarely rise to more than 1,000 feet above the surrounding landscape. Cinder cones are known for their very violent, explosive, exciting eruptions. Paricutin in Mexico and Mt. Vesuvius in Italy are famous cinder cones.

     

    cones10


    Vulcanian eruptions are more violent and explosive than strombolian eruptions. Vulcanian eruptions are named after the island of Vulcano off the coast of Italy. This is the same island that gave us the name "Volcano". Vulcanian eruptions contain high dark clouds of steam, ash, and gas. The ash plume builds a cauliflower shaped head and a thinner more treetrunk-like base. When the volcano quits erupting ash and gases it then ejects thick pasty lava. Vulcanian eruptions usually build a steep sided cone that is more symetrical than a cinder cone. This more symetrical cone is called a strovolcano.

    Vulcanian eruptions will send an ash plume to a height of 2 -9 miles. The photo to the left is of Katla volcano in Iceland which erupted in 1918.

     

    cones11


    Stratovolcanoes or composite cones are formed from a combination of eruptions. First the volcano will have an explosive eruption that ejects huge amounts of steam, gas and ash. This will be followed by the ejection of lava. A large stratovolcano will be built with many layers of ash and lava.

    Stratovolcanoes are the most common type of volcanic cone. There are many famous stratovolcanoes in the world. Mt. St. Helens and Rainier in Washington, Mt. Fuji in Japan, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Mt. Etna in Sicily are all examples of stratovolcanoes.

    The photo above is of the volcano Mayon, which is in the Philippines.

     

    cones12


    Pelean and Plinian eruptions are the most dangerous and explosive of the eruption types. Pelean eruptions are named for the catastophic eruption on the island of Martinique in the Carribean Sea in 1902. The eruption and the pyroclastic flow that followed killed 29,000 people almost instantly. "Glowing clouds" of gas and ash flew down the mountain at over 70 miles per hour. The cloud was so full of ash that it was heavier than air and hugged the ground as it approached the coast. The temperatures were probably around 700 degress F. which would annihalate everything in its path.

    The only person to survive was a prisoner that was sentenced to death. The only reason he survived was that he was imprisoned in a very thick walled cell and the only door faced away from the explosion.

    A Plinian eruption is the most explosive of the eruption types. Mt. St. Helens eruption was a plinian eruption. Plinian eruptions are characterized by a very high ash cloud that rise upwards to 50,000 feet (almost 10 miles) high. Very deadly pyroclastic flows are also part of plinian eruptions.

    Mt. Vesuvius, which erupted in 79 A.D. in Italy, was a classic Plinian eruption. Very hot ash falls killed thousands of people in the city of Pompei. Ash falls as high as 17 feet buried the city. Plinian eruptions were named for Pliny the Elder of Rome who died in one of the many eruptions of Vesuvius.

    The photo on the left side of this card shows Mt. St. Helens in its plinian eruption on May 18, 1980. The ash cloud rose to a height of over 50,000 feet.

     

    Write your answers to the questions on a sheet of paper. When you finish the lesson click on the "Earth" icon so that the next pair of students will be transported to the start of this lesson.

    Click on the page titles located directly under the questions to maneuver your way through the lesson to find the answers for the following questions.

    1. Name the six eruption types and the three cone shapes.

    2. Describe how a: Shield cone form Cinder cone forms Stratovolcano forms

    3. Draw diagrams to represent the six eruption types.

     

    Hotspot Volcanoes - Hawaii and Yellowstone Lesson #9

    This lesson was adapted and modified from Dr. Stephen Mattox's, "A Guide to The Geology of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park".

     

    Do you remember that there are three ways that volcanoes can form? They form at subduction zones, mid-ocean ridges and at something called a hot spot. In this lesson you will learn about what causes hot spots to produce volcanoes.

     

    hotspot1

     

    What do you notice about the lines of island groups in the Pacific Ocean?

     

    A geologist in the 1960's, by the name of Tuzo Wilson, noticed that there were straight lines of submarine volcanoes and volcanic islands in the Pacific.

     

    These linear chains of volcanoes ran in parallel lines to each other. (See white lines on the map)

     

    The active volcanoes in these chains are all located in the southeast corner and are the last island in that group.

     

    hotspot2 


    The oldest islands were the northern most islands in the group. Coincidence???

     

    What Tuzo Wilson decided was that the Pacific plate was moving over three hot spots. The Hawaii-Emperor Seamounts, Tuamotu, and the Austral groups of islands each formed over a different hot spot.

    About 43 million years ago the Pacific plate shifted its path to a more northwesterly direction. All the island groups changed course at the same time!!

    He also concluded that all the islands in the Emperor Seamount- Hawaiian chain all formed over the same hot spot that is currently under the big island of Hawaii today.

     

    hotspot3

     

    A hot spot occurs because of the intense heat of the outer core. This heat radiates through the mantle bringing hot solid rock upward to the hot spot. These areas of rising solid rock are called mantle plumes. Because of lower pressure in the upper region of the mantle the rock begins to melt. This forms magma which rises inch by inch until it reaches the surface forming a volcano.

    In 1971 W. Jason Morgan added to the hot spot theory. When the rising solid rock (mantle plume) reaches the plates it splits and spreads horizontally. This split or flow causes the plates to drift.

    Morgan proposed that there are 20 different hot spots in the world. Most hot spots are located at mid-ocean ridges, but there are a few located in the middle of plates, like Hawaii and Yellowstone.

     

    hotspot4


    This is a map of the Hawaiian Islands today. They didn't always look like this. 4.6 million years ago there was only one island in this group. As the Pacific plate moved slowly northwesterly it produced the Hawaiian Islands, one at a time. Today the big island of Hawaii sits over the same hot spot that produced the other islands.

     

    hotspot5


    The first Hawaiian Island to form over the hot spot was Kauai. It began to break the surface of the Pacific Ocean about 4.6 million years ago.

     

    hotspot6


    As the Pacific plate moved westward another island formed. That island was Oahu. The capital and largest city of Hawaii, Honolulu, is located on this extinct volcanic island.

     

    hotspot7


    The islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, and Maui share the same volcanic base. They all formed from separate volcanoes that were connected by huge lava flows. These volcanic islands also formed from the same hot spot.

     

    hotspot8


    Today the Big Island of Hawaii sits over the hot spot and has the only active volcanoes in that island group. Konala, Hualaiai, Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes have built the island over the last 500,000 years. Mauna Loa volcano is the largest volcano on Earth. It is over 30,000 feet tall from the seafloor where it was born to the summit, which is 13,684 feet above sea level.

     

    hotspot9

     

    This is a caldera.

    A caldera is a large bowl-shaped crater that is formed by the collapse of a volcanic cone after an eruption.

     

    hotspotformation 


    The animation shows the steps in the formation of a caldera.

    The volcano usually shows signs of erupting by producing earthquakes as the magma rises in the volcano.

    When you shake a can of soda pop and then open it, you will get a shower of gas (carbon Dioxide) and pop. Why? Because the pressure was much higher in the can than outside of the can. When you opened the top the pressure released very quickly shooting the gas and pop out.

     

    hotspot11


    After a huge ejection of lava there may be no magma left in the chamber to fill the conduit and crater. When this happens there is a hollow space under the summit of the mountain where the magma used to be. The top of the mountain then collapses creating a caldera.

     

    hotspot12


    The caldera may fill with water creating a lake. This is what happened at Crater Lake in Oregon. The ancient volcano Mount Mazama erupted violently about 6,000 years ago creating a caldera. The caldera slowly filled with snowmelt and rain forming beautiful Crater Lake.

    Another caldera forms most of the first national park of the United States, Yellowtone. The geysers and hot springs that make the park famous the world over are all volcanic in origin. In other word the park sits on top of an active volcano!!!!

     

    hotspot13 


    This is a map of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone sits atop a continental hot spot. As the North American plate moves steadily westward the hot spot affects different areas of the continent. Volcanic activity can be traced across the United States as the plate has moved across this hot spot.

    This caldera is one of the largest calderas in the world. It is over 65 miles across!!

     

    hotspotyellowstone 


    Millions of years ago the North American plate was hundreds of miles east of where it is today. As the plate moved west it slowly moved over the hot spot that is now under Yellowstone. The hot spot has created volcanic features through the western portion of the United States. Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho was created by the same hot spot.

     

    hotspotevolution

    (Open image in another window to see animation)

     

    This is exactly the same process that formed the Hawaiian Islands. The North American plate continues to move, which means that millions of years from now the hot spot will be under South Dakota or Iowa!!

    Remember as you watch the animation, the hot spot is stationary and the North American plate is moving westward!!!

     

    hotspot15


    Today Yellowstone National Park sits directly over the hot spot. The volcano is quiet today, only the geysers and hot springs remind us that there is a huge volcano under the beautiful scenery. Only 600,000 years ago a huge eruption filled the area with lava flows. After the huge eruption there was a void under the top of the volcano. The weight of the volcano caused the top to come crashing down forming the large caldera in the park.

     

    Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of paper. Use the page titles located directly under the questions to navigate your way through the lesson to locate the answers. When you have finished the lesson click on the Earth icon so the next group can begin the lesson.

    1. What is a Hot Spot?

    2. How does and hot spot form?

    3. How does a caldera form?

    Chapter 3 Copymaster: Test, Reviews, Answer Keys, Chapter Schedule

    Chapter #3 Copymaster includes tests and answers for students and teachers on material covered in Chapter 3.

    Select options on the right hand side to proceed. 

    Baseball Game

    baseballgame

    Materials:


    • One die
    • One baseball diamond transparency
    • Four markers for the runners


    Instructions

    Break your class into two teams.
    Ask a student a question. If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. (See rules below) If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

    Rules for the game


    1. Shake the die 
      1. single
      2. double
      3. triple
      4. home run
      5. single
      6. single

    2. Ask the question-If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. Place a marker on the base that they earned. If there is a runner on base ahead of them move the runner the same amount of bases as the batter. If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

    3. Keep rolling and asking questions until a player answers incorrectly. When they answer incorrectly switch batting teams.

    Chapter 3 Review

    Chapter 3 Review
    Cones, Eruptions, and Pyroclasts

    Name___________________

    1. What is lava?



    2. Name the two smallest particles of pyroclastic material.



    3. Name the two largest particles of pyroclastic material.



    4. What is a pyroclastic flow?



    5. What is the difference between pahoehoe and aa lava flows?



    6. What is the difference between high and low viscosity magma?



    7. How does a lava tube form?



    8. Name the two reasons that volcanic eruptions occur?




    9-14. Draw the three volcanic cone shapes and label each.







    15-16. What are the two most non-explosive eruption types?



    17-18. What are the two most explosive eruption types?



    19. What is a hot spot? Use the term mantle plume in your definition.



    20. What is a caldera?



    21. How does a caldera form?

    Chapter 3 Review Answer Key

    Chapter 3 Review
    Cones, Eruptions, and Pyroclasts

    Name Answer Key   

    1. What is lava?
      Lava is molten rock on the surface of the Earth. 

    2. Name the two smallest particles of pyroclastic material.
      Dust is the smallest of the pyroclasts and ash is the second smallest. 

    3. Name the two largest particles of pyroclastic material.
      Blocks are large, sharp edged pyroclasts. Bombs are large, smoothly shaped pyroclasts 

    4. What is a pyroclastic flow?  
      A twirling mixture of very hot ash, gases, and other pyroclastic materials that are heavier than air and flow down a volcano at high rates of speed. (700 degrees and 100 miles per hour) 

    5. What is the difference between pahoehoe and aa lava flows?
      Aa lava flows are very rough and fragmented. They are blocky in their appearance. Aa usually flows at a high rate of speed and cools slowly.  
      Pahoehoe usually flows at a very slow rate of speed. It is smooth and ropey in appearance. 

    6. What is the difference between high and low viscosity magma?
      High viscosity magma is very thick and pasty. It usually has a large amount of dissolved gas . It usually erupts violently.
      Low Viscosity magma is thin and runny with little dissolved gas. It usually erupts with thin flows of lava very quietly. 

    7. How does a lava tube form?
      A lava tube forms a tunnel when the surface of the lava flow cools and hardens, while the interior keeps flowing through, draining away , leaving the interior hollow. 

    8. Name the two reasons that volcanic eruptions occur?
      Magma will rise to the surface of the Earth when it is less dense than the surrounding rock in the mantle. When the magma reaches the surface of the Earth the pressure difference between the gases in the magma and the surface pressures allows the magma to boil out. 

    9-14. Draw the three volcanic cone shapes and label each.

    Shield Cone-


    Cinder Cone-

    Stratovolcano or composite cone-

    15-16. What are the two most non-explosive eruption types?
    Icelandic and Hawaiian eruptions are the least explosive and dangerous of the eruption types. 

    17-18. What are the two most explosiveeruption types?
    Plinian is the most explosive and Pelean is the deadliest. 
    19. What is a hot spot? Use the term mantle plume in your definition.
    A hot spot occurs near the crust where very hot solid rock rises through the mantle (a mantle plume) and forms magma near the surface of the Earth. Hot spots form volcanoes in both oceanic plates and continental plates. 

    20. What is a caldera?
    A caldera is a bowl-shaped depression caused by a volcanic eruption in which the top of the volcano collapses. 

    21. How does a caldera form?
    A caldera will form when a volcanic eruption depletes the magma chamber causing a void under the volcano's summit. The weight of the top of the volcano causes it to collapse. A bowl-like depression or hole forms there. 

    Chapter 3 Student Vocabulary

    Vocabulary
    Chapter 3

    Name____________________

    1. Lava-




    2. Pyroclasts (Pyroclastic Rock)-




    3. Pahoehoe-




    4. Aa-




    5. Viscosity-




    6. Tube-




    7. Dust-




    8. Ash-




    9. Blocks-




    10. Bombs-




    11. Pyroclastic Flows-




    12. Pumice-




    13. Obsidian-




    Lesson #8 Volcanic Cones and Eruptions

    1. Three Volcanic Cone Shapes-
    2. Eruption Types-

    Leson #9 Hot Spots-Hawaii and Yellowstone

    1. Hot Spot-





    2. Mantle Plume-




    3. Caldera-

    Chapter 3 Teacher Vocabulary

    Vocabulary
    Chapter 3

    Name____________________

    1. Lava
      Molten rock on the surface of the Earth.

    2. Pyroclasts (Pyroclastic Rock)-
      Pyro is Greek for fire and clastic means rock. Put them together and it translates into "Rock broken by fire". Pyroclasts are formed from the eruption of a volcano. Pyroclasts range in size from very small pieces of dust to ash to lapilli to bombs and block.  

    3. Pahoehoe-
      A Hawaiian term for lava that has a smooth and ropey surface. Pahoehoe forms when the flow is slow and cools slowly.

    4. Aa-
      A Hawaiian term for lava that is rough and fragmented.
      Aa lava forms when the lava flow is faster and the outside cools quickly causing the outside to become rough and fragmented.

    5. Viscosity-
      The resistance of flow in a liquid. Lava/Magma that is thick and pasty is said to have a high viscosity. High viscosity magma can hold a large amount of gas. This lava/magma usually will erupt violently when the gas that is dissolved in the magma escapes rapidly. Lava/magma that is thin and runny is said to have a low viscosity. These lava/magma will usually not erupt very violently. These eruptions will produce large amounts of lava and little pyroclastic material.

    6. Tube-
      A tunnel formed when the surface of a lava flow cools and hardens, while the still molten and flowing interior drains away.
    7. Dust-
      The smallest of the pyroclasts. Dust from volcanic eruptions have been known to stay floating in the atmosphere for years.

    8. Ash-
      Pyroclasts that are larger than dust. Very fine particles of exploded rock that can drift in the atmosphere for days.  

    9. Blocks-
      Angular pieces of pyroclastic rock that is exploded from a volcano during an eruption. 

    10. Bombs-
      Rounded pieces of pyroclastic material that are exploded during an eruption. These pyroclasts are in semi-plastic state and take their shape as they fly through the air.  

    11. Pyroclastic Flows-
      Very hot turbulent gases, ash, and pyroclasts that are heavier than air and will flow down the side of a mountain at high speeds. These flows have killed thousands of people in some famous eruptions such as Vesuvius in 79 A.D., and Pele on the island of Martinique in 1902.  

    12. Pumice-
      Pyroclastic rock that is in a semi-plastic state as it is shot through the air. The rock is full of gases that escape as the rock hardens. This rock is so full of holes that it floats on water.

    13. Obsidian-
      Lava rock that hardens very quickly. It can cool when it hits water or flowing down the side of a mountain. This rock is natures glass. It usually is dark green to black in color. Native peoples throughout the world have used it to make arrowheads, spears, and knives. It can be chipped to a very sharp edge.



    Lesson #8 Volcanic Cones and Eruptions

    1. Three Volcanic Cone Shapes-
      • Cinder Cone-
        Formed from eruptions of pumice and cinders. These cones rarely become more than 1000 feet tall. They are formed from very violent eruptions and can produce large amounts of dangerous gases.

      • Shield Cone-
        The largest of the cone types. These cones are formed from many eruptions of runny lava through the main vent and also through fissures on the flanks of the mountain. The largest volcano in the world, Mauna Loa, is a shield cone along with the rest of the Hawaiian Islands.  

      • Stratovolcano-
        The most dangerous and beautiful of the volcanic cones. It is produced from the alternating eruptions of ash and lava. Some of the most famous volcanoes in the world are stratovolcanoes. Mt. Fujiama in Japan, Mt. Ranier and Mt. St. Helens in Washington, Mt. Etna in Sicily, and Mt. Vesuvius in Italy are all stratovolcanoes.

    2. Eruption Types-
      • Icelandic-
        These eruptions are produced from many long cracks in the Earth called fissures. They are sometimes called flood eruptions because of the amount of lava produced. The magma is thin and runny and pours out of these fissures in great quantities. The great Columbian Plateau of Washington and Idaho were produced from Icelandic Eruptions. The lava that cover the Columbia Plateau is over a mile thick in places. They usually form shield cones.

      • Hawaiian-
        Very similar to Icelandic eruptions, the difference lies in the fact that the majority of the lava flows from the main vent in Hawaiian eruptions instead of through fissures. The lava is thin and runny and the eruptions are usually not violent. They usually form shield cones.

      • Strombolian
        Strombolian eruptions are short lived explosive eruptions that shoot very thick and pasty lava into the air along with bursts of steam and gas. These eruptions usually produce cinder cones.  

      • Vulcanian-
        Vulcanian eruptions are more violent and explosive than strombolian eruptions. Vulcanian eruptions contain high dark clouds of steam, ash, and gas. The ash plume builds a cauliflower shaped head and a thinner more treetrunk-like base. When the volcano quits erupting ash and gases it then ejects thick pasty lava. Vulcanian eruptions usually build a steep sided cone that is more symmetrical than a cinder cone called stratovolcanoes (composite cones)

      • Pelean-
        Pelean eruptions are named for the catastrophic eruption on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean Sea in 1902. The eruption and the pyroclastic flow that followed killed 29,000 people almost instantly. "Glowing clouds" of gas and ash flew down the mountain at over 70 miles per hour. The cloud was so full of ash that it was heavier than air and hugged the ground as it approached the coast. The temperatures were probably around 700 degrees F. which would annihilate everything in its path. 

      • Plinian-
        A Plinian eruption is the most explosive of the eruption types. Mt. St. Helens eruption was a plinian eruption. Plinian eruptions are characterized by a very high ash cloud that rise upwards to 50,000 feet (almost 10 miles) high. Very deadly pyroclastic flows are also part of plinian eruptions.  
        Mt. Vesuvius, which erupted in 79 A.D. in Italy, was a classic Plinian eruption. Very hot ash falls killed thousands of people in the city of Pompeii. Ash falls as high as 17 feet buried the city. Plinian eruptions were named for Pliny the Elder of Rome who died in one of the many eruptions of Vesuvius.

    Lesson #9 Hot Spots-Hawaii and Yellowstone

    1. Hot Spot- 
      A hot spot occurs because of the intense heat of the outer core. This heat radiates through the mantle bringing hot solid rock upward to the hot spot. These areas of rising solid rock are called mantle plumes. Hot spots do not move, but the plates above the hot spot moves producing island chains and the spreading of the oceans at mid-ocean ridges.

    2. Mantle Plume-
      Mantle plumes are areas of hot solid rising rock. This rock moves from the lower reaches of the mantle to the surface of the Earth causing the formation of volcanoes.

    3. Caldera-
      A caldera is a large bowl-shaped crater that is formed by the collapse of a volcanic cone after an eruption.

    Chapter 3 Test

    Chapter 3 Test
    Cones, Eruptions, and Pyroclasts

    Name______________________

    MATCHING


    1. ___Lava  A. Rough and fragmented lava flows
    2. ___Pahoehoe  B. The most explosive eruption type. Ash plumes may reach 50,000 feet.
    3. ___Plinian  C. Molten rock on the surface of the Earth
    4. ___Hawaiian  D. Large pyroclasts-over 2 inches long with a rounded shape
    5. ___Aa  E. Smooth and ropey lava flows
    6. ___Low Viscosity  F. Thin and runny magma that usually erupts quietly with large amounts of lava.
    7. ___Bombs  G. Eruption type in which thin and runny magma reaches the surface of the Earth through the main vent and fissures.


    8-9. Name two reasons that volcanic eruptions occur.




    10-15. Name and draw the three kinds of volcanic cones.


    16. What is a hot spot?



    Fill in the blank with the correct answer. Use the following words to complete the blanks. Dust, Lava Tube, Mantle Plume, Ash, Caldera, Pyroclastic Flow, Blocks.

    17. A large rough edged, angular pyroclast that is ejected during a volcanic eruption is called a _______________________.

    18. A______________________ is a bowl-shaped depression caused by a volcanic eruption in which the top of the volcano collapses.

    19. The smallest of the pyroclasts are called ___________________. They may stay in the atmosphere for years.

    20. A ____________________ forms when the surface of the lava cools and hardens, while the molten interior flows through and drains away.

    21. __________________ is the second smallest pyroclast. This material along with lava builds stratovolcanoes larger with repeated eruptions.

    22. A ____________________ is very hot, solid rock that rises through the mantle and will become magma as it reaches the surface of the Earth. They form hot spots.

    23. A_________________________ is a very hot, twirling mixture of ash, small pieces of pumice and other pyroclasts that are heavier than air and move down a volcano at high rates of speed.

    Chapter 3 Test Answer Key

    Chapter 3 Test
    Cones, Eruptions, and Pyroclasts

    Name Answer Key  

    MATCHING


    1.  ___C___Lava  A. Rough and fragmented lava flows 
    2.  ___E___Pahoehoe  B. The most explosive eruption type. Ash plumes may reach 50,000 feet.
    3.  ___B___Plinian  C. Molten rock on the surface of the Earth
    4.  ___G___Hawaiian  D. Large pyroclasts-over 2 inches long with a rounded shape
    5.  ___A___Aa  E. Smooth and ropey lava flows
    6.  ___F___Low Viscosity  F. Thin and runny magma that usually erupts quietly with large amounts of lava.
    7.  ___D___Bombs  G. Eruption type in which thin and runny magma reaches the surface of the Earth through the main vent and fissures.


    8-9. Name two reasons that volcanic eruptions occur.
    Magma will rise to the surface of the Earth when it is less dense than the surrounding rock in the mantle. When the magma reaches the surface of the Earth the pressure difference between the gases in the magma and the surface pressures allows the magma to boil out. 
    This is like opening a can of pop when it has been shaken. 

    10-15. Name and draw the three kinds of volcanic cones.

    Shield cone- Low and broad shaped cone formed from many eruptions of thin and runny lava.

    Cinder ConeSteep sided cone formed from the ejection of pyroclastic materials. 

    Stratovolcano or composite cone- Formed from many alternating eruptions of ash and lava. Beautifully symmetrical cones. 


    16. What is a hot spot?
    A hot spot occurs near the crust where very hot solid rock rises through the mantle (a mantle plume) and forms magma near the surface of the Earth. Hot spots form volcanoes in both oceanic plates and continental plates. 

    Fill in the blank with the correct answer. Use the following words to complete the blanks. Dust, Lava Tube, Mantle Plume, Ash, Caldera, Pyroclastic Flow, Blocks.

    17. A large rough edged, angular pyroclast that is ejected during a volcanic eruption is called a block  .

    18. A caldera  is a bowl-shaped depression caused by a volcanic eruption in which the top of the volcano collapses.

    19. The smallest of the pyroclasts are called dust  . They may stay in the atmosphere for years.

    20. A lava tube  forms when the surface of the lava cools and hardens, while the molten interior flows through and drains away.

    21.  Ash  is the second smallest pyroclast. This material along with lava builds stratovolcanoes larger with repeated eruptions.

    22. A mantle plume  is very hot, solid rock that rises through the mantle and will become magma as it reaches the surface of the Earth. They form hot spots.

    23. A pyroclastic flow  is a very hot, twirling mixture of ash, gases, and small pieces of pumice and other pyroclasts that are heavier than air and move down a volcano at high rates of speed.

    Discussion Questions

    Discussion Questions 

    Answer Key for Discussion and Hyperstudio Questions


     

    Lesson 7 "Lava Flows and Pyroclasts 


     

    Thought and Discussion Questions 

    1. What caused the death of so many people during the second eruption of Vesuvius?

    2. What is a pyroclastic flow?

    3. Describe pahoehoe and aa lava flows.

    4. What is a pyroclast and how do they form? 

    5. Write a definition for the following;
      1) High viscosity 2) Low viscosity


      Lesson 8 "Volcanic Cones and Eruptions" 

      No Content Center Today!!

    1. Name the six eruption types and the three cone shapes.


    2. Describe how a: 
      Shield cone forms
      Cinder cone forms
      Stratovolcano forms

    3. Draw diagrams to represent the six eruption types.


    Lesson 9 "Hot Spots-Hawaii and Yellowstone" 

    Discussion Questions 

    1. What is a Hot Spot? 

    2. How does and hot spot form?

    3. How does a caldera form?

    Discussion Questions Answer Key

    Discussion Questions 

    Answer Key for Discussion and Hyperstudio Questions


     

    Lesson 7 "Lava Flows and Pyroclasts 


     

    Thought and Discussion Questions 

    1. What caused the death of so many people during the second eruption of Vesuvius?
      Pyroclastic flows of 700 degree ash, gas, and pyroclasts moving of around 70 miles per hour swept over the city killing over 20,000 people. 
    2. What is a pyroclastic flow?
      A turbulent mixture of very hot gas, ash, and pyroclasts flowing down the side of a mountain at from 70 -200 miles per hour. 
    3. Describe pahoehoe and aa lava flows.
      Pahoehoe lava has a smooth and ropey texture. Pahoehoe forms when the lava flows at a slower speed, cooling slowly. Aa lava has a rough and fragmented surface. The lava forms when the lava flows at a fast speed, cooling quickly. 
    4. What is a pyroclast and how do they form? 
      Pyroclasts are 
    5. Write a definition for the following;
      1) High viscosity 2) Low viscosity


      Lesson 8 "Volcanic Cones and Eruptions" 

      No Content Center Today!!

    1. Name the six eruption types and the three cone shapes.


    2. Describe how a: 
      Shield cone forms
      Cinder cone forms
      Stratovolcano forms

    3. Draw diagrams to represent the six eruption types.


    Lesson 9 "Hot Spots-Hawaii and Yellowstone" 

    Discussion Questions 

    1. What is a Hot Spot? 

    2. How does and hot spot form?

    3. How does a caldera form?

    Lesson #7 Content Center

    Content Center
    Lesson #5 "Volcanoes"
    Vesuvius "The Day it Rained Fire"

    Pompeii and Herculaneum were bustling Roman cities in 79 A.D. Mt. Vesuvius hadn't erupted in over eight hundred years and the mountain was green with fig and olive trees. Farmers cultivated the sides of the cone. The people were used to earthquakes and didn't pay much attention to the numerous quakes that had been rattling their bowls and plates prior to the eruption. What they didn't know would kill thousands of people that beautiful August day in 79 A.D. Vesuvius was awakening from its long slumber.



    Vesuvius awakened with a huge eruption of ash and pumice raining down on the city of Pompeii. Pompeii lay to the south of the volcano and that day the wind was from the north pushing the cloud toward the city. Pompeii was buried in up to 20 feet of pumice and ash. Many animals and people were suffocated and buried alive. Many people though, did survive the initial eruption. Some decided to flee but many stayed. 



    The city of Herculaneum lays to the west of the volcano and much closer to Vesuvius than Pompeii. Herculaneum was a beautiful beachside resort city in 79 A.D. Herculaneum was barely touched by the first eruption. In fact, about only one inch of ash and pumice fell on the city during the first eruption. 
    The next eruption was the deadly one. This eruption blanketed the whole surrounding area with very hot, turbulent, twirling gases and ash. This glowing cloud was very heavy and hugged the ground as it flowed down the side of Vesuvius. The temperatures of this pyroclastic flow were probably around 700 degrees F. and at a speed of over 70 miles per hour animals and people could not out run it. With temperatures this high everything in its path is killed instantly.  
    Herculaneum didn't get lucky this time. It was buried in an extremely hot flood of volcanic mud. This steam filled volcanic mud buried the city with a layer over 50 feet high. Pompeii suffered through this eruption also. Over 20,000 citizens died in the pyroclastic flows only hours after the initial eruption.
    A man by the name of Pliny the Younger wrote an account of this eruption as he viewed Vesuvius from Naples to the northwest of the volcanic mountain. His account was probably the first one ever written. His uncle, Pliny the Elder, died in the second eruption that day. Pliny the Elder was a commander of a fleet of Roman battleships. He was also a naturalist, a person who studies natures spectacles and writes about them. He was viewing the eruption when he was probably over come by hot gases.
    Today Vesuvius is the most visited volcano in the world. The mountain that hadn't erupted in about eight hundred years has erupted many times since. In 1631, Vesuvius belched out another pyroclastic flow, which has been the worst eruption since 79 A.D. Many tourists pay to make the very difficult climb to the crater to view the steaming lava inside the volcano. They flock to the excavated ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum to view the plaster casts of bodies as they lay when they died almost two thousand years ago during the day that rained fire. 
    Discussion Questions

    1. What caused the death of so many people during the second eruption of Vesuvius?

    2. What is a pyroclastic flow?

    Lesson #7 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

    Goals, Objectives and Materials
    For Lesson #7
    "Lava Flows and Pyroclasts"

    Goals:

    To familiarize students with the vocabulary associated with volcanic processes and the structure of a volcano itself.

    Objectives: 

    The students will:

    1. Become familiar with the processes and concepts that create and build volcanoes;
    2. Become familiar with the terms associated with volcanic processes;
    3. Become familiar with the vocabulary associated with the structure of a volcano.

    Materials: 

    1. Hands-On Lesson Plan Sheet

    2. Five colors of modeling clay or playdough-Red, Brown, Gray, Black, Blue

    3. 10 X 12 sheets of tag board

    4. Felt tip pen for labeling

    5. Thick Thread

    Lesson #7 Hands-on Center

    Hands-On Center
    (Lava Flows and Pyroclasts)
    Lesson #7
    Modified and adapted from John Farndon's book 
    "How the Earth Works"

    Flowing Lava


    Materials

    1. 4 plastic jars
    2. 4 spoons
    3. fine grained sand
    4. stop watch
    5. 4 plastic plates
    6. 1 tablespoon
    7. molasses
    8. liquid dish soap
    9. shampoo
    10. vinegar


    Part 1

    The students will need their science notebooks, pencils, and stop watches ready. One student will measure one tablespoon full of one of the liquids. They will slowly pour that liquid onto a plastic plate. Another student will time how long it takes for the liquid to stop spreading. Repeat this procedure with the other three liquids. 
    The liquids that have the longest spreading times have the highest viscosities. Tell the students there are lavas with very low viscosities (very thin and runny) and lavas with very high viscosities (thick and pasty). There are also many different lavas in between.  
    Low viscosity lavas are found in Hawaii and Iceland and are usually not violent. High viscosity lavas are very violent and erupt with little or no lava. High viscosity lavas shoot pyroclasts such as pumice, cinders and ash high into the air.

    Part 2
    Have the students add one teaspoon of sand to one cup of the four liquids used in part 1.  
    Stir the mixture thoroughly.  
    Have the students repeat the pouring and timing portion as in part 1. Have all students record the times and compare Part 1 to Part 2 times.
    Explain to the students that lavas with a high silica content(sand and quartz) have high viscosities(aa) and lavas with low silica contents have low viscosities (pahohoe)
    Add sand to a cup of molasses until its viscosity is so high that will not flow. Spoon the mixture onto a dish and explain that they have just created a lava dome.
    High or Low Viscosity

    Materials: 
    1. 2 plastics jars
    2. molasses
    3. water
    4. 2 straws


    Fill a small plastic jar to within one inch of the rim with water and the other jar with molasses. Put one straw into each jar. Have one student blow bubbles with the same pressure. Record what happens. The students will see rapid bubbling in the water because the water has a low viscosity. This is what pahoehoe lava is like. The gases escape quickly from the low viscosity lava and usually are not very violent. 
    The students will see a slow bubbling from the molasses because of its high viscosity. Lava with a high viscosity will hold a lot of gas and will loose the gas as it nears the surface of the Earth and the pressures become lower (like opening a bottle of pop and releasing the pressure). These magmas erupt violently frequently.

    Floating Rocks????
    Materials: 
    Pumice
    Clear plastic container
    Water
    Float pumice in a container full of water. Have the students draw what they see. Show the students the holes in the pumice explaining they were formed as the rock hurtles through the air.  

    Lesson #8 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

    Goals, Objectives and Materials
    For Lesson #8
    "Volcanic Cones and Eruptions"

    Goals:

    To familiarize students with the processes involved in volcanic eruptions and how these eruptions form volcanic cones.

    Objectives: 

    The students will:

    1. become familiar with the processes involved in volcanic eruptions;
    2. become familiar with the way eruption types form volcanic cones;
    3. become familiar with the differences in magma viscosity and how it relates to eruption explosiveness.

    Materials: 

  • Hands-On Lesson Plan Sheet

  • Glass jar 9/10 filled with honey
  • small cork
  • Small steel ball (steel marble)
  • modeling clay, playdough, or art clay
  • popsicle sticks for shaping cones
  • wax paper
  • tag board
  • colored markers



  • Lesson #8 Hands-on Center

    Hands-On Lesson #8
    (Volcanic Cones and Eruptions)
    Why Does Magma Rise??
    Materials: Glass jar 9/10 filled with honey
    small cork
    Small steel ball (steel marble)

    The students will place a small cork and a small steel ball into an empty glass jar. The students will then fill the jar with honey and watch what happens. They should write down their predictions as to what will happen after the honey is placed in the jar. The students should write down what they see occurring and why they believe it happened..  
    The students will observe that materials made of less dense material (cork) will rise in a much denser medium (honey). The steel ball will remain on the bottom of the jar because it is denser than the medium that it is in (honey). Magma will rise in the Earth for the same reason, the magma is produced by the melting of the oceanic crust and the top layer of the mantle. The melting material is less dense than the surrounding mantle and that causes it to rise.




    Cone Shapes
    Materials: 
    1. modeling clay or playdough
    2. popsicle sticks for shaping cones
    3. wax paper


    The students will construct a 3-d model of the three basic  
    volcano cone shapes using modeling clay or playdough.

    1. shield cone

    2. cinder cone

    3. composite cone or stratovolcano

    Lesson #9 Content Center

    Content Center 
    (Lesson #9)
    Hot Spots-Hawaii and Yellowstone

    Geysers and Hot Springs

    Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone Nation Park is a famous tourist attraction. Every hour or so it sends a stream of scalding hot water from 135-200 feet in the air. Why does this occur? The same scientific principle that makes a volcano erupt turns a hole in the ground into a spectacular fountain.
    Hot springs and geysers form over magma chambers in very similar ways. Geysers though, are more complex in how they form and much more spectacular in the display that they put on. Here is how the Earth works like a giant hot water heater and boiler.  
    Rain water seeps into the ground and slowly percolates down through cracks in the layers of the upper crust. Here it collects in porous rock that holds the water like a sponge.  
    The huge magma chamber that sits under the park is the heating source. This magma chamber is located over two miles below the porous rock layer that holds the water. The rock below radiates the heat up to the water by a method called conduction. You have felt conduction when you have picked up a glass handled dish of hot water from the microwave oven. The glass handle is hot because the heat from the water radiates through the bowl to the handle.  
    The water in the layer of porous rock is heated but will not boil because it is under extreme pressure from the overlying rock. The water is superheated like in a steam boiler. The temperatures may reach over 500 degrees Fahrenheit! At the same time that the water is heating, more water from the surface keeps coming into the rock layer. This cooler water sinks to the bottom causing the hot water to rise. When the water rises the pressure from the surrounding rock layers drops. The result is the hot water will continue to rise untill it reaches the surface of the Earth. Some of these hot springs become filled with mud and form hot mud pots. People throughout the world come to hot springs and mud pots for enjoyment and some even believe they have medicinal or magical healing powers.
    Geysers, the giant boilers of the Earth, are produced in a slightly more complex way. As the heated groundwater rises it collects in rock pockets that are under extreme pressure. Because of the high pressure the water is not able to boil. The temperature continues to rise until some of the water boils. The steam then rises very fast and takes some of the non-boiling water with it. This reduces the pressure in the rock pocket. Thr superheated groundwater then heats to steam quickly because of the drop in pressure around it. When this happens the rest of the water in the rock pocket explodes out through the fissure and will continue to erupt until the steamy groundwater is gone.  
    Sometimes these eruptions will last for over an hour. When the eruption is over the rock pocket will fill with groundwater and start the cycle again.  
    Old faithful in Yelowstone Nation Park goes through this cycle every 65 minutes or so.  




    Questions


    1. What is the difference between a hot spring and a geyser?







    2. Why does the release of pressure cause the geyser to erupt so explosively?

    Lesson #9 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

    Goals, Objectives and Materials
    For Lesson #9
    "Hot Spot Volcanoes-Hawaii and Yellowstone"

     

    Goals:

    To familiarize students with the vocabulary and  
    processes involved in understanding hot spot 
    volcanism.

    Objectives: 

    The students will:

    1. become familiar with the processes of plate  
      movement that causes hot spot volcanoes to 
      form;
    2. become familiar with the processes that 
      cause mantle plumes to form and rise.


    Materials: 

    1. One "Content Center Lesson" for each student

    2. Hands-On Lesson Plan Sheet

    3. Cooking Oil
    4. Squeeze Bottle (Example: dish soap bottle)
    5. Large Clear Plastic Container
    6. Water
    7. Red Food Coloring

    Lesson #9 Hands-on Center

    Hands-on Center 

    (Hot Spots: Hawaii and Yellowstone) 
    Lesson #9

    The mantle's convection experiment
    Modified and adapted from John Farndon's book 
    "How the Earth Works"

    The teacher must set up and run this experiment! The oil and dish will get hot!!!!!


    Materials: 

    1. 1 heat proof glass dish
    2. 1 tea candle
    3. 3 cups of cooking oil
    4. 1 book of matches
    5. 1 bottle of dark colored food coloring 
    6. 1 eye dropper
    7. 2 clay bricks
    8. 4 small pieces of packing foam 



    1. Pour the 4 cups of cooking oil into the glass dish.
    2. Place the glass dish onto the 2 clay bricks.
    3. Light the tea candle and place it under the glass dish.
    4. Put dark colored food coloring into the eyedropper.
    5. Squeeze some of the food coloring into the cooking oil near the bottom of the glass dish.  
    6. When the food coloring begins to move lay some pieces of Styrofoam on top of the cooking oil and observe the movement. (The flowing of the Styrofoam will represent the movement of the Earth's plates) The cooking oil will heat up and convection currents will be generated. The food coloring will enable the students to see the movement of the convection currents. The oil and food coloring will rise as they heat up. The rising material will cool as it nears the surface of the liquid. The farther the material gets from the heat source the cooler it will become. As the material cools it will slowly desend.  
      This process of gaining energy (heat) and rising and then losing energy (cooling) will go on and on. These are convection currents. This rising and cooling sets up a current in the cooking oil. The teacher should explain that this is a theory of how the mantle "flows" and the plates (Styrofoam pieces) of the Earth are carried with these movements.
      The students should draw and label a diagram of the experiment.  

      Magma Rising
      Materials: 
      1. Cooking Oil
      2. Squeeze Bottle (Example: dish soap bottle)
      3. Large Clear Plastic Container
      4. Water
      5. Red Food Coloring
      1. Have the students fill a plastic squeeze bottle full of cooking oil with red food coloring in it.  
      2. Place the squeeze bottle into a large clear plastic container full of water.  
      3. Tell the students to squeeze slowly the bottle full of cooking  oil.  
      1. Have the students record what they observe.  
        The students will observe the cooking oil rise through the water because the oil is less dense than the water. The same process causes magma in the Earth to rise from the bottom of the Mantle to the Earth's crust causing volcanism. 

    Chapter 4 Rocks and Minerals

    Chapter 4 focuses on Rocks and Minerals, looking at types of rocks.

    Lessons included in this chapter:

    #10 Rocks

    #11 Minerals

    #12 Igneous Rocks

    #13 Sedimentary Rocks

    #14 Metamorphic Rocks

    Resources for Teachers can be found under the Chapter #4 Copymaster.

    Select from the options on the right to proceed.

    Rocks Lesson #10

    The Earth was formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The planet was so hot that the entire Earth was molten or liquid. As the Earth cooled, the lightest materials floated to the top and the heaviest materials sank to the center. The outer part of the Earth, the crust, consists of the lightest rock.

     

    Rock Lesson - lava flow 

    The lightest rocks form the continents, which are made mostly of the rock granite. Most of the granite on the continents has, over millions of years, been broken down, transported, and deposited into sedimentary rock. These layers of sedimentary rock vary from 8-9 miles thick to nothing in some areas like the Canadian Shield of North America. The Canadian Shield has huge outcroppings of granite right on the surface. Under the thick layers of sedimentary rock lies the denser granite. 

     

    The granitic continents ride on a much denser rock called basalt. These basalts form the bottom of our continents and the bottoms of our great oceans. This layer of rock extends down to 40 miles from the surface of the earth. 

     

    Rock Lesson - Lithosphere 

    The crust is very thin in comparison to the other layers of the earth. The crust is only 3 miles thick under the oceans and about 40 miles thick under the highest mountain chains. The layer of the earth under the crust is called the mantle. It is over 1800 miles thick!! The crust and the upper level of the mantle form a layer of the earth that moves very slowly (1-4 inches per year). This layer that moves and causes earthquakes and volcanoes is called the Lithosphere.

     

    Rocks are made of two or more different minerals that have been:

    1. cemented together, or

    2. squeezed and heated together, or

    3. melted and cooled together.

     

    Rocks make up the majority of the Earth's crust. One of the most common rock is granite. The four minerals that make up granite are feldspar, quartz, mica, and hornblende. Granite was formed when magma cooled slowly forming crystals of the four minerals that make up the rock granite. 

     

    Rock Lesson - Granite 1

    Look at the photo above of granite. Notice the different mineral crystals that make up the rock, granite.

     

    Most of the Earth's surface rocks are covered by soil or clay. Soil contains very small crushed pieces of rock and organic (plant and animal remains) material. Plants such as grass and trees grow in this region of the crust.

     

    Rock Lesson - Hawaii photo

    The photo above shows a recent eruption of ash that has covered and burned an area of dense vegetation in Hawaii. The lava has cooled and is now a volcanic rock called basalt. The weathering process will break the basalt down into small, finer pieces of rock called soil. This process can take a few years or thousands of years to produce soil fine enough for plants to grow well in. The soil will become fertile when bacteria decomposes plant and animal material adding nutrients for living plants. 

    Rocks are produced in a variety of ways and have been cycled in some area many times. This cycling of the rocks is called the rock cycle.

     

    Rock Lesson - Rock cycle 

    The rock cycle shows how the earth's rocks are changed again and again. The rocks can be changed at times to another type of rock. The rock cycle can begin anywhere in the cycle. Lets start with igneous rocks. Igneous rocks start as magma. The magma (molten rock under the surface) and lava (molten rock on the surface) hardens into igneous rock. The igneous rock then breaks apart over time through the process of weathering. These bits of broken rock are washed away by rains and deposited in a river. These pieces of igneous rocks are cemented together with other bits of rock and form a sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Over time sedimentary rocks can be buried by earthquakes or other geologic processes. Being buried deep under the surface in areas of high temperatures and pressures or coming in contact with magma can cause these sedimentary rocks to change to metamorphic rocks. 

     

    Rock Lesson - Diagram 

    Diagram 1 shows layers of rocks around and under a volcano. The white blocks are a sedimentary rock called limestone. Limestone forms on the bottom of the ocean over many, many years. The fish and shelled sea animals decompose and their bones and shells break down into a chemical called calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This is the cementing agent that binds the sediments that fall to the sea floor into the rock called limestone. Magma has pushed its way to the surface and is now coming into contact with the surrounding rock layers. 

    Diagram 2 shows the limestone being heated by the magma and changing to the metamorphic rock called marble (Yellow). Marble is a beautiful rock that is used by humans as building material and for decorative uses as in sink tops or monuments. Artists have sculpted marble into some of the greatest works of art in the world.

     

    Rock Lesson - Rock Classification

    The three main rock classifications are Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic. Rocks are classified into these groups by the way they were formed. 

    Rocks that formed from magma are called igneous rocks. Igneous comes from the Latin word ignis which means "fire". Rocks that are formed from heat and pressure are called metamorphic rocks. Rocks that are formed from the cementing together of small pieces of rocks or shells are called sedimentary rocks. We will discuss these three types of rocks more in depth later in this chapter.

     

    Rock Lesson - US Map 

    This map of the United States and parts of Mexico and Canada shows what type of rock makes up the surface of these regions. The majority of the surface rocks on the North American continent are sedimentary. The mountainous regions of the west and southwest are made of igneous rocks. The Appalachian Mountain region of the eastern U.S. and most of eastern Canada are made of metamorphic rocks.

     

    Rock Lesson - Granite 

    Granite is an igneous rock that is composed of four minerals. These minerals are quartz, feldspar, mica, and usually hornblende. Granite forms as magma cools far under the earth's surface. Because it hardens deep underground it cools very slowly. This allows crystals of the four minerals to grow large enough to be easily seen by the naked eye. Look at the photo of granite above, notice the different crystals in the rock. 

    Granite is an excellent material for building bridges and buildings because it can withstand thousands of pounds of pressure. It is also used for monuments because it weathers slowly. Engravings in the granite can be read for hundreds of years, making the rock more valuable. 

    Granite is quarried in many places in the world including the United States. The state of New Hampshire has the nickname "Granite State" because of the amount of granite in the mountains of that beautiful state. The Canadian Shield of North America contains huge outcroppings (surface rocks) of granite.

     

    Rock Lesson - Milky Quartz

    Milky quartz is a common mineral that is found in many different types of rocks. The chemical formula is Silicon oxide (SiO2). One type of quartz is easily identified by its hexagonal crystals, but quartz can also be found in a large mass. Quartz can be broken or weathered into the tiny pieces we know as sand. Quartz is a very hard mineral and in fact is the hardest of the common minerals. Quartz is number seven on the Mohs hardness scale. Quartz is also chemically stable, which means that it weathers very slowly.

     

    Quartz can be colored yellow, milky white, rose, smoky (brown or black), and the best known of the colored crystals amethyst, which is purple. Impurities in the rock at the time of formation causes the quartz crystal to have these different colors. 

    Quartz is used by humans in producing optical instruments and electical devices. It is also used to make sandpaper and grinding tools.

     

    Rock Lesson - Pink Feldspar

    Feldspar is the most abundant mineral in rocks that are located at or near the earth's surface. Feldspar can have a glassy white, blue, green, or red crystals. All feldspars contain silica and aluminum. 

    When feldspars are exposed to the atmosphere they break down or weather easily. When they are broken down, feldspar forms other minerals, many of which are clay minerals. Feldspars also contain potassium which is a major nutrient for plant growth. 

    The clays formed by weathered feldspar are used by pottery manufacturing plants. Kaolinite is the highest quality of the feldspar clays used by potters. 

    Feldspar is number 6 on the Mohs hardness scale.

     

    Rock Lesson - Hornblende

    Hornblende is a mineral that contains magnesium, iron, silica and aluminum. Hornblende is black, brown and green in color. It occurs in crystals of many igneous rocks.

     

    Rock Lesson - Biotite Mica

    Mica is a mineral that can be split into very thin sheets. These sheets can be so thin that 1000 can be layered into mica 1 inch high. Mica can be clear, black, green, red, yellow, and brown. Clear mica is called Muscovite because it is found near Moscow, Russia and was used as window glass in the Muscovite's homes. Muscovite contains water which helps to make it clear. Biotite mica is dark green to black in color because it contains iron, magnesium. 

    Mica is mined in Brazil, India, many parts of Africa, Canada, and the United States. It is used in the manufacturing of electronic and electrical devices.

     

    Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of paper.

     

    In your own words write a definition for rock. 


    What is soil composed of? 


    Describe in your own words how the rock cycle works. 


    Name the four minerals that granite is made from and a human use for each of the four minerals. 


    Name the three classifications for rocks.

     

     

     

     

     

    Minerals Lesson #11

    A mineral is a solid material, made of one substance, that occurs naturally on Earth. Most of the common minerals are made of crystals. A Crystal is a solid formed by a repeating, three-dimensional pattern of atoms, ions, or molecules and having fixed distances between the different parts. Minerals that do not grow in these regular or crystalline patterns are called Amorphous solids.

     

    mineral1

     

    Some minerals can be both crystalline and amorphous. The two photos above show a crystalline quartz specimen and an amorphous quartz specimen.

     

    Quartz is a mineral made from one substance SiO2 (Silicon Oxide) that has a definite chemical composition. The quartz that you find in Asia has the same basic chemical make up as quartz found in Minnesota.

     

    mineral2

     

    There are 92 naturally occurring elements on earth but only eight elements make over 98% of the minerals on the Earth's crust. They are, in decreasing quantity, 1 oxygen, 2 silicon, 3 aluminum, 4 iron, 5 calcium, 6 sodium, 7 potassium, 8 magnesium. The graph above shows you the amounts of these elements in the Earth's crust.

     

    There are over 2000 minerals on Earth, but only 100 are commonly found. 30 minerals make up the majority of the rocks on Earth. You will be studying these minerals in this series of lessons. Rocks, as you learned in the last lesson, are made of two or more of these minerals.

      

    There is a great difference in the way different minerals look. Some minerals sparkle in the light while others are dull and boring!! Some minerals are so hard that they can scratch steel while other minerals are so soft that they feel powdery and can be scratched easily by a fingernail. There are many ways that scientists classify or group minerals, in this lesson we are going to study five properties. A property is a characteristic of a mineral. Properties help scientists to better understand how the mineral was formed and also to help identify a mineral. The five properties that we are going to study are luster, hardness, cleavage and fracture, color and streak, and magnetism.

     

    mineral3

     

    Luster is a property of a mineral that tells how the mineral reflects light. Luster gives you an indication of how "Shiny" a mineral is. The two main ways that geologists categorize a mineral's luster is Metallic and Non-metallic. The luster of a mineral may differ from sample to sample. Metallic minerals shine like metal, while non-metallic minerals vary greatly in their appearance. There are many different descriptions of non-metallic luster, we are going to discuss four. They are pearly, earthy, vitreous (glassy), and greasy. Pearly luster is iridescent, glows like a pearl. Greasy luster looks like the mineral is covered with grease, the mineral definitely shines. Minerals with an earthy luster have a dull look with no shine. Minerals with an earthy luster look as though they are covered with dirt or dust. The photos above shows examples of these four lusters. Minerals with a vitreous luster (glassy) look like small pieces of a broken glass bottle

     

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    Color is the easiest of the properties to see, but it is not always the best way to identify a mineral. Many minerals have more than one color because of impurities that were present during the formation of the mineral. Quartz is an example of a mineral with many different colors. Quartz can be clear, white, blue, brown, and almost black. Amethyst is a quartz crystal with a purple color. The impurity that makes amethyst purple is manganese.

    A better determinant of the true color of a mineral is its streak. Streak is a test used by a geologist to see the color of the mineral under the top layer or coating on the mineral. The mineral is rubbed on a "streak plate", which is a piece of porcelain. When the mineral is rubbed across the streak plate some of the mineral is broken off and ground into a powder. This allows the geologist to see under the outer layer which could have a different color due to the mineral being exposed to the atmosphere. When minerals are exposed to the atmosphere, gasses like oxygen can chemically combine with the mineral to change its outer color.

    The photo above is showing a specimen of iron pyrite along with a streak plate showing the pyrite's streak.

     

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    In 1822 a German scientist by the name of Frederick Mohs set up a scale to determine the approximate hardness of minerals. (SEE CHART ABOVE!!!) He arranged the minerals in his scale from softest (Talc) to hardest (Diamond). The minerals get increasingly harder as you read down the scale, but they do not increase in hardness at a constant rate. Example: Calcite is not twice as hard as talc and a diamond is not 10 times harder than talc. In fact a diamond is over 40 times harder than talc. The line graph above shows you this relationship.

     

    This property like color is arbitrary because the hardness of a mineral varies slightly from one specimen to the next. We can determine the approximate hardness of a mineral by running a group of tests. Scratch the mineral in question with a fingernail, penny, iron nail, or glass slide. If the mineral shows a scratch mark from one of the testing materials the mineral is said to be less hard than the mineral that scratched it. Example: A piece of pink feldspar will not be scratched by a fingernail, penny, or an iron nail, but will be scratched by a glass slide. The feldspar is said to be harder than the first three testing materials but not as hard as the glass slide.

     

    You can use the following materials to run your own mineral hardness tests. 1) bar soap 2) fingernail 3) penny 4) easy to scratch knife blade 5) hard to scratch a knife blade 6) will scratch glass slide 7) quartz crystal.

     

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    Some minerals have a tendency to split or crack along parallel or flat planes. This property is easily seen in some minerals and you can test the mineral by breaking it with a hammer or splitting off sheets with a pen knife. These planes along which the mineral breaks are called cleavage planes. If the mineral splits easily along these planes the mineral is then said to have perfect cleavage. Mica is a good example of perfect cleavage. Feldspar is an example of a mineral with cleavage in more than one direction. Quartz is a mineral that has no cleavage at all. Quartz shatters likes glass when struck with a hammer. The biotite mica on the far left splits into sheets that are perfectly parallel. They form because of weak and strong bonds between the mica layers. The feldspar breaks into two planes at consistent angles.

     

    Fracture is related to cleavage. Fracture occurs when a mineral breaks at random lines instead of at consistent cleavage planes. Many minerals that have no cleavage or poor cleavage fracture easily. The obsidian on the far right is a good example of a rock that has conchodial (glass like) fracture. Quartz is a mineral that also has conchodial fracture.

     

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    Only two minerals on earth are magnetic. They both have high quantities of iron. Magnetite is one of the magnetic minerals and pyrrhotite is the other. Magnetite was used by ancient sailors for compasses. They would chip off needles of magnetite and float them on water and watch the needle point to the north.

    The photo above shows small pieces of metal fillings magnetically attached to magnetite! The rock is a natural magnet!

     

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    Calcite is pure calcium carbonate (CaCO3). It is found in limestone and marble. It is the cementing agent that binds sediments together into sedimentary rocks. Marble is metamorphosed (changed by heat and pressure) limestone. The crystals formed from pure calcite are in the form of a perfect rhomboid. A rhomboid is a six-sided solid object in which the opposite sides are parallel. It has perfect cleavage in three directions. If you hit calcite with a hammer it will break into smaller but perfectly shaped rhomboids. Calcite is number two on Mohs hardness scale. Calcite is the material that forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves.

     

    Calcite is used as a fertilizer, cement, chalk, building stone, and for the manufacture of optical instruments.

     

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    Talc is a mineral that has perfect cleavage and a greasy or soapy feel. It is given the distinction of being number 1 on Mohs hardness scale. Talc is also called soapstone which is used by artists for sculptures. Talc can be ground up into talcum powder. Ground talc is also used to make crayons, paint, paper, and soap. Talc is quarried in many Northeastern states of the United States.

     

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    Hematite is the most important source of iron ore in the world. The production of iron has been important to nations of the world for over 2500 years. Today the addition of other minerals to iron has lead to the production of steel which is vital to the economy of the major countries on Earth. Hematite has a red or black color but the streak is always red. The iron in the hematite turns red when it comes in contact with water and oxygen. In other words this rock is rusted!!

     

    Hematite has a metallic or earthy luster. The hardness of hematite is about 5 on Mohs hardness scale. It has no cleavage and breaks with an uneven fracture. The reddish landscape of Mars is due to the oxidized iron on its surface. This tells us that water and oxygen must have been present on Mars at one time.

    Hematite is mined in the Lake Superior and Appalachian mountain regions of the United States. Small deposits are found in many states of the union. Canada and Russia are leading countries in the mining of iron ore.

     

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    Magnetite is a mineral that has a very high iron content. Magnetite has a black or brownish-red color and a black streak. It has a hardness of about 6 on the Mohs hardness scale. It is one of two minerals in the world that is naturally magnetic. Magnetite, also known as lodestone, is found throughout the United States.

     

    Magnetite is an important source of iron ore and occurs in many igneous rocks.

     

    There is a city in Russia by the name of Magnitogorsk that received its name because of the unusually high quantities and quality of magnetite found in the mountains surrounding the city. Magnitogorsk is a leading iron manufacturing center in Russia today.

     

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    Galena is an important source of lead. Galena's chemical symbol is PbS, which is lead and sulfur. Galena may also contain silver. The United States is the leading producer of lead in the world. Lead was used in pencils and paint until it was found to be poisonous to humans . Today pencil "lead" is made of another mineral called graphite. Lead is used for fishing weights.

     

    Galena is an iron sulfide and the main source of lead. Galena usually occurs in cubic crystals. If you hit a specimen of galena with a hammer it will shatter into small perfect cubic crystals. It has a metallic luster and a black to dark gray color and streak. Galena has a hardness of about 2.5 on Mohs hardness scale which is about as hard as your finger nail.

    Galena is mined in Missouri, Idaho, Utah, Oklahoma, Colorado, British Columbia of Canada, and Mexico.

     

     

    Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of paper.

     

    1.

    What is a mineral?

    2.

    What are physical properties of minerals?

    3.

    What eight elements make up over 98% of the Earth's crust?

    4.

    Write a pararaph describing the properties and human uses for one of the minerals that you studied in this lesson.

     

    Igneous Rocks Lesson #12

    When most people think about igneous rocks they envision a volcano erupting pumice and lava. The term igneous comes to us from the Latin word "Ignis" which means fire. Igneous rocks are produced this way but most igneous rocks are produced deep underground by the cooling and hardening of magma. Magma is molten (melted) rock under the surface of the Earth. It is produced in the upper reaches of the mantle or in the lowest areas of the crust usually at a depth of 50 to 200 kilometers.

     

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    The diagram above shows you where magma is produced at a subduction zone. Magma is less dense than the surrounding rock which causes it to rise. When magma reaches the surface it is then called lava and the eruptions of lava and ash produce volcanoes. The lava that reaches the Earth's surface will harden and become igneous rock. When the magma does not reach the surface it produces a variety of geologic structures. When lava reaches the surface of the Earth through volcanoes or through great fissures the rocks that are formed from the lava cooling and hardening are called extrusive igneous rocks. Some of the more common types of extrusive igneous rocks are lava rocks, cinders, pumice, obsidian, and volcanic ash and dust.

     

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    This is the volcano Paricutin that is located in Mexico. It is erupting cinders and pumice which are examples of extrusive igneous rocks.

     

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    Millions and even billions of years ago molten rock was cooling and thus hardening into igneous rocks deep under the surface of the Earth. These rocks are now visible because mountain building has thrust them upward and erosion has removed the softer rocks exposing the much harder igneous rocks. These are called intrusive igneous rocks because the magma has intruded into pre-exiting rock layers. Types of intrusive igneous rocks are granite and basalt.

    The diagram above shows you a large intrusive igneous body called a batholith. A batholith is the largest of the intrusive bodies. They are larger than 100 square kilometers and usually form granite cores.

     

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    As you can see in the diagram above a batholith is a very large intrusive igneous body. There are two types of intrusive bodies that we are going to discuss 1)Discordant and 2) Concordant. A discordant igneous rock body cuts across the pre-exiting rock bed. Batholiths and dikes are examples of discordant rock bodies. A dike is a vertical or near vertical intrusive igneous rock body that cuts across rock beds. They frequently form from explosive eruptions that crack the area around a volcano with the magma filling the cracks forming a dike.

    A concordant igneous rock body runs parallel to the pre-existing bedrock. Laccoliths and sills are examples of concordant igneous rock bodies. A laccolith is a dome shaped intrusive body that has intruded between layers of sedimentary rock. The rising magma forces the overlying layers to rise up into a dome. A sill is similar to a dike with the exception that sills run parallel to the existing rock bed instead of cutting through it.

     

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    The composition of igneous rocks falls into four main categories. They are determined by the amount of silica that the rocks contain. The four categories are acidic, intermediate, basic, and ultramafic. Acidic rocks have a high silica content (65% or more) along with a relatively high amount of sodium and potassium. These rocks are composed of the minerals quartz and feldspar. Rhyolite and granite are the two most common types of acidic rock.

    Intermediate rocks contain between 53% and 65% silica. They also contain potassium and plagioclase feldspar with a small amount of quartz. Diorite and Andesite are the two most common types of intermediate rock.

     

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    Basic rocks are composed of less than 52% silica and a large amount of plagioclase feldspar and very rarely quartz. The two most common types of basic rocks are basalts and gabbros.

    Ultrabasic rocks are composed of less than 45% silica and contain no quartz or feldspar. They are composed mainly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene. The most common ultrabasic rock is periodite. Periodite is a dark green, coarse-grained igneous rock that many scientists believe is the main rock of the mantle.

     

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    Basalts are dark colored, fine-grained extrusive rock. The mineral grains are so fine that they are impossible to distinguish with the naked eye or even a magnifying glass. They are the most widespread of all the igneous rocks. Most basalts are volcanic in origin and were formed by the rapid cooling and hardening of the lava flows. Some basalts are intrusive having cooled inside the Earth's interior.

     

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    This is a vertical columnar basalt formation. When basaltic lava cools it often forms hexagonal (six sided) columns. Some famous examples of columnar basalt formations are the Columbia Plateau overlooking the Columbia River near Portland, the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland, and the Devils Postpile National Monument in California (Above).

     

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    Pumice is a very light colored, frothy volcanic rock. Pumice is formed from lava that is full of gas. The lava is ejected and shot through the air during an eruption. As the lava hurtles through the air it cools and the gases escape leaving the rock full of holes.

    Pumice is so light that it actually floats on water. Huge pumice blocks have been seen floating on the ocean after large eruptions. Some lava blocks are large enough to carry small animals.

    Pumice is ground up and used today in soaps, abrasive cleansers, and also in polishes.

     

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    Rhyolite is very closely related to granite. The difference is rhyolite has much finer crystals. These crystals are so small that they can not be seen by the naked eye. Rhyolite is an extrusive igneous rock having cooled much more rapidly than granite giving it a glassy appearance. The minerals that make up rhyolite are quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende.

     

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    Gabbros are dark-colored, coarse-grained intrusive igneous rocks. They are very similar to basalts in their mineral composition. They are composed mostly of the mineral plagioclase feldspar with smaller amounts of pyroxene and olivine.

     

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    Obsidian is a very shiny natural volcanic glass. When obsidian breaks it fractures with a distinct conchoidal fracture. Notice in the photo to the left how it fractures. Obsidian is produced when lava cools very quickly. The lava cools so quickly that no crystals can form.

    When people make glass they melt silica rocks like sand and quartz then cool it rapidly by placing it in water. Obsidian is produced in nature in a similar way.

    Obsidian is usually black or a very dark green, but it can also be found in an almost clear form.

     

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    Ancient people throughout the world have used obsidian for arrowheads, knives, spearheads, and cutting tools of all kinds. Today obsidian is used as a scalpel by doctors in very sensitive eye operations.

     

    Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of paper.

     

    1.

    In your own words write a definition for magma and lava.

    2.

    What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks?

    3.

    What are the most common extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks?

    4.

    What is the difference between granite and rhyolite and how are they similar?

     

    Sedimentary Rocks Lesson #13

    The land around you, no matter where you live, is made of rock. If you live in a place that has good rich soil, the soil itself is finely broken down or weathered rock.

    People that live in a desert region can easily find rocks on the surface. These rocks lay on a surface of clay that is also a product of weathering rock. Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks and minerals into smaller pieces by water, wind, and ice.

    Sedimentary rocks are formed from the breaking apart of other rocks (igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks) and the cementation, compaction and recrystallization of these broken pieces of rock.

     

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    The photo above shows layers of lava and ash in Hawaii that will, over time, and with the help of bacteria, break down into fertile soil.

     

    Sedimentary rocks are formed from broken pieces of rocks. These broken pieces of rock are called sediments. The word "Sedimentary" comes from the root word "Sediment".

    Sedimentary rocks are usually formed in water. Streams and rivers carry sediments in their current. When the current slows around a bend or the river empties into a lake, or ocean, or another river the sediments fall out because of gravity. The larger sediments fall out first and the lightest sediments fall out last.

     

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    The diagram above shows layers of sediment that were laid down in a lake. In the spring the lake receives an influx of water from the mountain snow melt. This snow melt carries with it a large amount of sediment that becomes suspended in the lake water. As the sediment settles out during the summer and especially in the winter, if the lake becomes frozen over, the sediments come to rest on the bottom. The heaviest and largest particles settle out first and the lightest sediments such as silts and clays settle out last. The number 1 shows sediment that would have been laid down during 1994, number 2 in 1995, and number 3 would have been laid down in 1996. The gray area above the 3 would be the latest layer being laid down at the present time. This laying down of rock-forming material by a natural agent is called deposition. Natural agents of deposition are water, ice, gravity, and wind.

    Sediment is deposited in flat, horizontal layers with the oldest layers on the bottom and the younger layers laying on and over the older layers. Geologists use this knowledge to read layers of sedimentary rock like the pages in a book. They can date layers by the fossils that are found in them. If a layer has a fossil in it that is known to be 50 million years old the layer itself must be at least 50 million years old and the layers below it have to be older than 50 million years.

     

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    The size of sediment is defined by the size of the particles that make up the sediment. The largest sediment size is called a boulder. Boulders have a diameter that is larger than 256 millimeters (about 10 inches). Cobbles are the next largest sediment, they are 64 - 256 mm in diameter (about 3-10 inches). Pebbles are next in size and are 4-64 mm in diameter (about 1/6-3 inches). The next sizes of sediments are very small, granules are 2-4 mm, sand 1/16-2mm, silt 1/256-1/16 mm, and the smallest sediment size is clay which is less than 1/256 of a millimeter in diameter.

    Sedimentary rocks are formed in three ways from these different sized sediments.

     

    A sedimentary rock is a layered rock that is formed from the compaction, cementation, and the recrystallization of sediments.

    Compaction is the squeezing together of layers of sediment due to the great weight of overlying layers of rock. This squeezing of the layer results in reducing the thickness of the original layer. When the layers are reduced in thickness the pore spaces around the sediments are also reduced, which leads to a tighter packing of the layers.

    Cementation is the changing of sediment into rock by filling spaces around the sediments with chemical precipitates of minerals. binding the sediments, and forming solid rock. Calcite and silica are common minerals that cement the sediments together.

    Recrystallization is the third way that sedimentary rocks are formed. Recrystallization is the formation of new mineral grains that are larger than the original grains. As the sediments recrystallize they arrange themselves in a series of interlocking crystals that connect the other grains together into a solid rock.

     

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    The photo above shows layers of sedimentary rocks that were deposited in flat horizontal layers. These layers were then uplifted and bent by mountain building.

     

    Sedimentary rocks form a thin layer of rock over 75 per cent of the Earth's surface. They are the site of very important resources such as ground water, coal, oil, and soil. Shale, sandstone, and limestone are the most common types of sedimentary rocks. They are formed by the most common mineral that is found on or near the surface of the Earth. The mineral that forms these sedimentary rocks is feldspar.

     

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    Running water, such as the mountain stream above, sorts and transports more sediment than any other agent of deposition.

     

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    Clastic sedimentary rocks are made of pieces of rock or mineral grains that have been broken from preexisting rock. These particles and grains have become solid rock by the processes of compaction or cementation of sediments. Some clastic rocks are conglomerate, shale, breccia, gray and red sandstone, siltstone, and graywacke.

     

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    Non-clastic sedimentary rocks form from the precipitation (Precipitation is the separating of a solid from a solution) of minerals from ocean water or from the breakdown of the shells and bones of sea creatures. Sea animals such as coral produce calcium carbonate solutions that harden to form rock. As the chemicals, that comes from the mineral or biological precipitation, mix with sediments on the floor of the ocean or lake they crystallize and grow in the spaces around the sediment. When these crystals grow large enough to fill the spaces they harden and form a solid rock.

    Some non-clastic rocks are limestone, chert, dolostone, gypsum, halite (rock salt), diatomite, and chalk.

     

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    Organic sedimentary rocks form from the build up and decay of plant and animal material. This usually forms in swamp regions in which there is an abundant supply of growing vegetation and low amounts of oxygen. The vegetation builds so quickly that new layers of vegetation bury the dead and decaying material very quickly. The bacteria that decay the vegetation need oxygen to survive. Because these decaying layers are buried so fast the bacteria use up what oxygen there is available and can not finish the decomposition of the vegetation. The overlaying layers become so heavy that they squeeze out the water and other compounds that aid in decay.

    This compressed vegetation forms coal. The longer and deeper that coal is buried makes it of higher quality. Peat is the first stage of coal formation. Lignite is the next grade of coal followed by bituminous and the highest grade, anthracite. Anthracite is actually a metamorphic rock. It forms during mountain building when compaction and friction are extremely high. This form of coal burns very hot and almost smokeless. It is used in the production of high grade steel.

     

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    Shale is one of the most common sedimentary rocks. It is composed of silt or clay that has been compacted or squeezed together to form a solid rock. Shale is usually found in thin layers. The silt or clay that composes shale is made of very small pieces of weathered rock. The pieces are from 1/16 to 1/256 of a millimeter in diameter. The color of a sample of shale is that of the clay or silt that it was formed from.

     

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    Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock that forms from the cementing together of sand sized grains forming a solid rock. Quartz is the most abundant mineral that forms sandstone. Calcium carbonate, silica, or iron has been added to the water that is in contact with the sand grains. These minerals grow crystals in the spaces around the sand grains. As the crystals fill the gaps the individual sand grains are now transformed into a solid rock.

     

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    Limestone is the most abundant of the non-clastic sedimentary rocks. Limestone is produced from the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate) and sediment. The main source of limestone is the limy ooze formed in the ocean. The calcium carbonate can be precipitated from ocean water or it can be formed from sea creatures that secrete lime such as algae and coral.

    Chalk is another type of limestone that is made up of very small single-celled organisms. Chalk is usually white or gray in color.

    Limestone can easily be dissolved by acids. If you drop vinegar on limestone it will fizz. Put a limestone rock into a plastic jar and cover it with vinegar. Cover the jar and watch the bubbling of the calcium carbonate and also the disintegration of the rock over a few days.

     

    Limestone caves are an interesting geological feature. They form because the limestone deposits located under the ground are chemically dissolved by moving ground water. The ground water contains minerals that make the water slightly acidic. When an acid comes into contact with a rock that is composed of calcium carbonate a chemical reaction takes place. The acid "eats" the limestone. The calcium carbonate then goes into the ground water which moves down farther into the cave. The water will find its way into small crack and crevasses. The dripping water will create formations called stalactites and stalagmites.

    Stalactites (they grow from the ceiling)and stalagmites (they grow from the floor) are not technically limestone. They form in caves because as the limestone is dissolved calcium carbonate is put into solution in the ground water. This solution drips through crack and slowly forms stalactites and stalagmites.

     

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    The photo above shows both stalactites and stalagmites growing together in Jewel Cave National Park in South Dakota.

     

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    Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock that forms the cementing of rounded cobble and pebble sized rock fragments. Conglomerate is formed by river movement or ocean wave action. The cementing agents that fill the spaces to form the solid rock conglomerate are silica, calcite, or iron oxides.

    Notice in the photo above the rounded rock particles in the conglomerate. These rounded particles make conglomerate different from the next rock you are about to study, breccia.

     

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    Breccia is formed in a very similar fashion to conglomerate. The difference between the two rocks is that breccia's rock fragments are very sharp and angular. These rock fragments have not been transported by water, wind, or glaciers long enough to be rounded and smoothed like in the conglomerate. The cementing agents silica, calcite (CaCO3), and iron oxides are the same as in conglomerate.

     

     

    Write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a piece of paper.

     

    1.

    In your own words describe the process of weathering.

    2.

    What is deposition?

    3.

    What are the three ways that a sedimentary rock forms?

    4.

    How does a limestone cave form?