Chapter 1 Copymaster: Test, Reviews, Answer Keys, Chapter Schedule

Chapter #1 Copymaster includes tests and answers for students and teachers on material covered in Chapter 1.

Select options on the right hand side to proceed. 

Chapter 1 Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson Plan


Explain to your class that they will be working in three centers for science over the next few weeks. They need a science notebook, a pencil, and colored pencils daily. Some days they will need more lab equipment.  

 

Day one-
Materials: 

  1. Reading and Thinking Sheets for each student- See Content Lesson #1

  2. Hands-On materials- See Hands-On Lesson #1
    • 1 apple for every four students
       
    • 1 knife for teacher use only!!

Split your class into 3 groups. Each group will start at a different center. The three centers are the Hands-On Center, the Content Center, and the Computer Center. Have books dealing with Earth Science at each center for those who finish their work early.  
Each center will last approximately 15 minutes. When everyone in the class has finished their work in the center rotate the groups. When all the groups have been at each center review with the whole class by correcting the questions from the Computer Center and the Content Center. 
If your class is very large you may want to set up a fourth center. This could be called the Vocabulary Center. There is a Student Vocabulary Sheet and a Teacher Vocabulary Sheet provided in the Copy Masters file. 

Day Two
Materials:

  • One copy of Lesson #2 Content Sheets for each student

  • Hands-On Materials:
    • Two maps (Pangaea, World today) for the students to study.  
    • Two "World Cut Up" maps for each student pair to cut into the seven moving continental plates.  
    • Two pieces of blue construction paper (9 X 12) that will represent the oceans of the world.
      • Glue
      • Scissors
      • Colored Markers


Follow the same lesson plan for day one. Start the groups at a different center each day.  

Day Three-

Materials: 

  • One copy of Content Lesson # 3 for each student

  • Four strips of foam rubber 4 inches by 30 inches and about 1 inch thick. The foam rubber should be made of different colors. These strips will represent layers (strata) in the crust of the earth. (See Hands-On lesson #3)


Follow the same lesson plan design as in Day One and Two. Start the groups at a different center from the previous day

Day Four-
Review Vocabulary Sheets by playing a game called Baseball.
Materials: 

  • One die
  • One baseball diamond transparency
  • Four markers for the runners


Break your class into two teams.
Ask a student a question. If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. (See rules below) If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

Rules for the game


  1. Shake the die 
    1. single
    2. double
    3. triple
    4. home run
    5. single
    6. single

  2. Ask the question-If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. Place a marker on the base that they earned. If there is a runner on base ahead of them move the runner the same amount of bases as the batter. If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

  3. Keep rolling and asking questions until a player answers incorrectly. When they answer incorrectly switch batting teams.


Day Five-
Have the students work on the Review provided in the Copy Masters.


Day Six-
Correct the Review and play Baseball or another review game. After the students have learned Baseball they can play it in their groups with copies of the diamond.

Day Seven-
Test the students using the Test provided in the Copy Masters.

Baseball Game

baseballgame

Materials:


  • One die
  • One baseball diamond transparency
  • Four markers for the runners


Instructions

Break your class into two teams.
Ask a student a question. If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. (See rules below) If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

Rules for the game


  1. Shake the die 
    1. single
    2. double
    3. triple
    4. home run
    5. single
    6. single

  2. Ask the question-If they answer correctly award them the base that they rolled with the die. Place a marker on the base that they earned. If there is a runner on base ahead of them move the runner the same amount of bases as the batter. If they answer incorrectly their team is out. One out per inning.

  3. Keep rolling and asking questions until a player answers incorrectly. When they answer incorrectly switch batting teams.

Chapter 1 Review

Review Chapter 1
The Earth: A Dynamic Planet

Name____________________

  1. Draw two diagrams showing the folding and fault-block mountain building process.






  2. In your own words explain how convection currents in the mantle move the plates of the Earth.






    Use the following terms to answer the questions 3-14 below.


    Collision plate boundary Transverse plate boundary Separation plate boundary
    Continental Drift Theory Pangea Plates
    Magma Trenches Lava
    Fault Laurasia Gondwanaland



  3. The southern continent after Pangea split apart. It became the continents of Africa, Antarctica, South America and the subcontinent of India.

  4. The plate boundary where two plates are moving apart creating new crust and making the oceans spread.


  5. This is molten rock on the surface of the Earth.


  6. This is the name of the supercontinent 250 million years ago.

  7. These are pieces of the crust that "float" and move because of the mantle's convection currents. 

Chapter 1 Test

Chapter 1 Test 

The Earth: A Dynamic Planet

Name______________________

1-4. Label the four layers of the Earth.


5. Explain how the mantle's convection currents move the Earth's plates?





6. What is happening at a transverse plate boundary?




7. Name two pieces of evidence that scientists have used to base the Continental Drift Theory on.




8. The collision of the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate produced the _______________________ Mountains, the highest mountain range in the world.

9. What type of mountain formation is shown in the diagram below?




10. What type of mountain formation is shown in the diagram below?



What is happening at the following plate boundaries?

11. Collision boundary-



12. Separation boundary-



13. Transverse boundary-


Matching Vocabulary I

14. _____ subduction zone  A Pieces of the crust that "float" on the mantle.
15. _____ convection currents  B The only ocean on Earth 250 million years ago.
16. _____ Pangea  C Movements in a material caused by hotter material rising and cooler material sinking.
17. _____ Plates  D Supercontinent 250 million years ago
18. _____Panthalassa  E Area where two plates are colliding. One plate is pushed down under the other plate.

Matching Vocabulary II

19. _____Magma A The northern half of Pangea after it split apart.
20. ___Continental Drift Theory  B The deepest places on the surface of the Earth. They are located at subduction zones.
21. ______Mid-ocean ridge  C Molten rock below the surface of the Earth
22. _____ Laurasia  D Place where two plates are separating. These plates are moving in opposite directions making the oceans larger.
23. _____Trenches  E The idea that the Earth's plates are "floating" on the mantle and have been for millions of years.

Chapter 1 Review Answer Key

Review Chapter 1
The Earth: A Dynamic Planet

Name  Answer Key  

  1. Draw two diagrams showing the folding and fault-block mountain building process.

    Fault-block mountain building process



    Folding Process






  2. In your own words explain how convection currents in the mantle move the plates of the Earth.

    The deepest portion of the mantle is much hotter than the upper mantle. Hot material rises to the top of the mantle and then cools and sinks. This rising and sinking happens in a circular motion which turns over and over. As it turns it moves the upper region of the mantle and the crust with it. 

    Use the following terms to answer the questions 3-14 below.


    Collision plate boundary Transverse plate boundary Separation plate boundary
    Pangea Plates Magma
    Continental Drift Theory Trenches Lava
    Fault Laurasia Gondwanaland
  3. The southern continent after Pangea split apart. It became the continents of Africa, Antarctica, South America and the subcontinent of India.
    Gondwanaland
  4. The plate boundary where two plates are moving apart creating new crust and making the oceans spread.
    Separation Plate Boundary

  5. This is molten rock on the surface of the Earth.
    Lava

  6. This is the name of the supercontinent 250 million years ago.
    Pangea
  7. These are pieces of the crust that "float" and move because of the mantle's convection currents. 
    Plates
  8. Molten rock under the surface of the Earth is called.
    Magma
  9. The northern continent after Pangea split.
    Laurasia
  10. A long crack in the crust is called a  Fault .

  11. A plate boundary in which the two plates crash into each other causing mountain building, earthquakes, and volcanic activity.
    Collision Plate Boundary

  12. The idea that the Earth's plates are moving across the surface of the Earth.
    Continental Drift Theory

  13. A plate boundary in which the two plates are sliding in opposite directions.
    Transverse Plate Boundary
  14. The deepest area of the oceans. They are formed at a subduction zone.
    Trenches
  15. What is the main material that the crust is made of?
    Rock
  16. What two metals are the main components of the inner and outer core?
    Iron and Nickel

  17. Name three pieces of evidence that scientists have used to base their ideas for the Continental Drift theory on.


    Scientists have used magnetic bands in rocks to prove that the continents have drifted apart, fossils of tropical plants and animals that have been found in places like Antarctica and Greenland, and fossils of fish found in high mountain regions.



18-21 Label the four layers of the Earth and explain what the main materials are that make up each layer.

1.Crust 2.Mantle 3.Outer Core 4. Inner Core

Chapter 1 Test Answer Key

he Earth: A Dynamic Planet

Name__Answer Key_____
1-4 Label the four layers of the Earth.

1.Crust 2.Mantle 3.Outer Core 4. Inner Core




5. Explain how the mantle's convection currents move the Earth's plates?
The deepest zone of the mantle is much hotter than the upper zone. Hot material rises to the top of the mantle and then cools and sinks. This rising and sinking happens in a circular motion. When the mantle flows it moves the plates. 

6. What is happening at a transverse plate boundary?
A transverse plate boundary has two plates sliding by each other. Both plates are moving in opposite directions. A transverse boundary is like a tear in the Earth's crust.


7. Name two pieces of evidence that scientists have used to base the Continental Drift Theory on. 
Scientists have used 1)magnetic bands in rocks and 2)fossils of tropical plants and animals that have been found in places like Antarctica and Greenland. They have also used fossils of fish found in high mountain regions in the center of continents.

8. The collision of the Indian plate and the Asian plate produced the Himalaya Mountains, the highest mountain range in the world.

9. What type of mountain formation is shown in the diagram below?

Folded Mountains


10. What type of mountain formation is shown in the diagram below?


Fault-block Mountains

What is happening at the following plate boundaries?
11. Collision boundary- 
Two plates are crashing into each other causing mountain building, volcanic activity, and earthquakes.
12. Separation boundary- 
Two plates are moving in opposite directions causing magma to fill the void and producing "NEW" crust. This is also spreading the oceans making them wider.
13. Transverse boundary-
Two plates are sliding past each other moving in opposite directions.

Matching Vocabulary I
14. __E__ subduction zone  A Pieces of the crust that "float" on the mantle.
15. __C__ convection currents  B The only ocean on Earth 250 million years ago.
16. __D__ Pangea  C Movements in a fluid caused by hotter material rising, then cooling and sinking in a circular motion.
17. __A__ Plates  D Supercontinent 250 million years ago
18. __B__Panthalassa  E Area where two plates are colliding. One plate is pushed down under the other plate.

Matching Vocabulary II
19. __C__Magma  A The northern half of Pangea after it split apart.
20. __E__Continental Drift Theory  B The deepest places on the surface of the Earth. They are located at subduction zones.
21. __D__Mid-ocean ridge  C Molten rock below the surface of the Earth 
22. __A__Laurasia  D Place where two plates are separating. These plates are moving in opposite directions making the oceans larger.
23. __B__Trenches  E The idea that the Earth's plates are "floating" on the mantle and have been for millions of years.

Chapter 1 Student Vocabulary

Vocabulary
Chapter 1
The Earth; A Dyanamic Planet

Name____________________

Lesson 1 The Earth's Layers

  1. Crust-



  2. Oceanic Crust-




  3. Continental Crust-






  4. Mantle-






  5. Convection Currents-




  6. Outer Core-




  7. Inner Core-




Lesson Two- Pangea to the present

  1. Dynamic Planet-



  2. Plates-



  3. Plate Tectonics/Continental Drift Theory-



    • Pangaea-



    • Panthalassa-



    • Laurasia-



    • Gondwanaland-



  4. Plate Boundaries
    • Convergent-



    • Divergent-



    • Transform-
  5. Myths and Legends 
    • Japan-Namazu and Kashima



    • Hawaii- Pele



    • Roman-Vulcan


Lesson 3- How Plates Move

  1. Subduction Zone-




  2. Mid-ocean ridge-



  3. Magma/Magma Pool-



  4. Pyroclastic Rock-



  5. Trenches-


  6. Formation of Mountains-

Chapter 1 Teacher Vocabulary

Vocabulary
Chapter 1
The Earth; A Dynamic Planet
 
Name____________________

Lesson 1 "The Earth's Layers"



  1. Crust -The outer layer of the Earth. The crust consists of ocean plates and continental plates. The crust is composed of light material called rock. The crust and the outer layer of the mantle together are called the lithosphere. The lithosphere is very brittle and light and moves because of convection currents in the lower layer of the mantle called the asthenosphere.

  2. Oceanic Crust -Made of dense basaltic rock. Oceanic plates carry the continental plates across the surface of the Earth.  

  3. Continental Crust -Made of light granitic rock. Continental crust rides on the oceanic crust.

    • Lithosphere - The crust and the upper rigid layer of the mantle seem to move together and form the plates of the Earth.

  4. Mantle -Largest layer of the Earth located directly under the crust. The mantle is composed of very hot, dense, flowing rock. The material in the mantle flows because of convection currents. 

    • Asthenosphere - Lower layer of the mantle. This is the layer that flows and moves the plates of the Earth. Flows very slowly with the consistency of hot asphalt under pressure.

  5. Convection Currents - are a circular current caused by the difference in temperatures from the bottom to the top of the mantle. It is because of these currents that the plates of the Earth have moved in the past and are moving today. These plate movements cause earthquakes, mountain building, and volcanism. 

  6. Outer Core -The layer located directly under the mantle. The outer core is composed of liquid nickel and iron. Scientists believe that the outer core is liquid because S waves from an earthquake bounce of the layer instead of passing through it.

  7. Inner Core -The inner core is composed of nickel and iron under such great temperatures and pressures that the metals are in a solid state of motion.

Lesson Two- "Pangaea to the present"



  1. Dynamic Planet -The Earth's surface is very slowly but constantly changing. The plates are moving causing earthquakes that reshape the land, mountain building, and volcanism that also dramatically reshapes the surface.

  2. Plates -The thin, fragile, and rigid lithosphere is broken up into 12 main plates. These plates move very slowly at about 1 inch to 4 inches per year.

  3. Plate Tectonics/Continental Drift Theory -Alfred Wegener, a German scientist proposed this theory that states that the Earth's surface is broken into pieces that move and have moved for millions of years. Wegener did not know the mechanism that moved the plates, and his theory was rejected until the 1960's when scientists studied the ocean floor and found the mid-ocean ridges (sea floor spreading zones).
    • Pangaea -Super continent 250 million years ago. The seven continents were all connected together into one huge land mass.
    • Panthalassa -The gigantic ocean 250 million years ago. It was the predecessor to the Pacific Ocean.
    • Laurasia -About 200 million years ago Pangaea began to break up. The northern part which consisted of North America, Asia, and Europe was then called Laurasia. 
    • Gondwanaland -The southern part after the split up of Pangaea was called Gondwanaland. Gondwanaland consisted of South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and the subcontinent of India.


  4. Plate Boundaries 
    • Convergent -A boundary in which two plates collide causing
      1) immense mountain building (Ex: Indian plate and the Eurasian plate forming the Himalayan Mountains) and 
      2) one plate riding above the other driving the thinner denser plate down into the mantle creating a subduction zone
    • Divergent -A boundary in which two plates are separating. The two plates are moving in opposite directions and as they spread apart magma fills the void causing the formation of new crust. Divergent boundaries cause the oceans to spread apart while convergent boundaries cause the oceans to shrink.
    • Transform -A boundary in which two plates scrape and slide past each other. Transform boundaries are like tears in the Earth's crust. An example is the San Andreas Fault in California. 



Lesson 3- How Plates Move 


  1. Subduction Zone -Formed at a convergent plate boundary. One plate is lighter and thicker than the other causing the thinner denser plate to be driven down into the mantle. Subduction zones are areas of the world in which high amounts of earthquakes and volcanism is present. Subduction zones are ocean shrinking zones.

  2. Mid-ocean ridge -Formed at a divergent plate boundary. The worlds longest continuous mountain range over 40,000 miles long. Where the two plates separate lava fills the void causing new crust to be produced. Mid-ocean ridges are ocean spreading zones.  

  3. Magma/Magma Chamber -Magma is molten rock under the Earth's surface. Magma is full of gas and under extreme pressures. Magma will collect in areas of weak rock far under the surface of the Earth in zones called magma chambers.

  4. Pyroclastic Rock -Pyroclastic is a Greek word that means "broken by fire". Pyroclasts are fragmented rock that is ejected from a volcano. Pyroclasts are classified by the size of the particle; ash is very small pieces of shattered rock. lapilli are pieces of shattered rock 1/10 of an inch to 2 inches in diameter. Blocks and bombs are larger pyroclasts ranging in size from 2 inches to several feet in diameter. Blocks are angular chunks of rock and bombs are rounded rock that takes its shape as it is hurled through the air.

  5. Trenches -Form at subduction zones. They are the deepest part of the oceans and the lowest points on the crust of the Earth.

  6. Formation of Mountains -
    • Folded Mountains -Rollercoaster like formation. The plates of the Earth are pushed together and the impact forms the tallest mountains on Earth.  

    • Fault-block Mountains -The plates are pushed together and snap from the collision. These mountains have very rough linear peaks. Ex: The Grand Teton Mountains in Wyoming.

    • Dome Mountains -These mountains form when plate collisions push an area of the crust up into a dome shape. The crust doesn't snap and break as in fault-block mountains. Ex: The Black Hills of South Dakota.

Lesson #1 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

Goals, Objectives and Materials
For Lesson #1
The Earth's Layers

Goal: 

To provide students with the understanding that the Earth is comprised of four layers.

Objectives: 

The students will be able to

  1. Name and label the four layers of the Earth;
  2. Identify the main minerals that make up each layer;
  3. Explain how scientists formulated the idea that the Earth is comprised of four layers.


Materials: 

  1. One "Earth's Layers" disk for each computer
  2. Reading and Thinking Sheets for each student- See Content Lesson #1

  3. Hands-On materials- See Hands-On Lesson #1
    • 1 apple for every four students
    • 1 knife

Lesson #2 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

Goals, Objectives and Materials
For Lesson #2
"Pangaea to the Present"

Goals: 

To acquaint students with the concept that the Earth is a dynamic ever changing planet. To help students to understand that the Earth's plates have been moving for millions of years and are still moving today.

Objectives: 

The students will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate how the Earth's plates have moved.
  2. Describe the processes that cause plate movement.


Materials:

  1. One copy of Lesson #2 Content Sheets for each student

Hands-On Materials:

  1. Two maps (Pangaea, World today) for the students to study.  
  2. Two "World Cut Up" maps for each student pair to cut into the seven moving continental plates.  
  3. Two pieces of blue construction paper (9 X 12) that will represent the oceans of the world.
  4. Glue
  5. Scissors
  6. Colored Markers

Lesson #3 Goals, Objectives, and Materials

Goals, Objectives and Materials
For Lesson #3
"How the Earth's Plates Move"

Goals: 

To help students understand the concept of plate tectonics.

Objectives: 

Students will:

  1. Become familiar with and be able to demonstrate the process of folding;

  2. Become familiar with the process of convection current movement in the asthenosphere;

  3. Become familiar with processes that produce convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries.


Materials: 


  1. One copy of Content Lesson # 3 for each student

  2. Four strips of foam rubber 4 inches by 30 inches and about 1 inch thick. The foam rubber should be made of different colors. These strips will represent layers (strata) in the crust of the earth. (See Hands-On lesson #3)

Lesson #1 Content Center

Content Center (Lesson #1)
The Earth's layers

Geologists have known for about 100 years that the Earth is composed of four layers; the Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, and the Inner Core . Scientists still argue about the makeup of these layers and exactly how each layer interact. 
A geologist, by the name of Andrija Mohorovicic, discovered in 1909 that earthquake waves near the surface moved slower than earthquake waves that passed through the interior of the Earth. He also noticed that the P (primary, first and strongest) waves that passed through the interior of the Earth did not do so in a straight line. These waves were bent or deflected by something!!! (see diagram A page 3) 
He decided that the outside layer or Crust was made of less dense material (Rock) and the next layer, the Mantle was much denser. This would explain why the earthquake waves moved slower through the crust. Waves of all kinds move faster and straighter through denser, more solid objects.
Today scientists believe that the crust and the rigid, outer zone of the mantle makes up a layer that is called the Lithosphere . The lithosphere is broken into 12 large pieces that are called plates. The zone directly under the lithosphere is made of a flowing, denser layer called the Asthenosphere. Scientists believe that the plates ride on the asthenosphere, which flows due to convection currents. See diagram on page 2.



Beno Gutenberg

a German geologist, believed that the Outer Core must be made of a liquid because the slower S (secondary waves) could not pass through this layer and in fact "bounced off" and were deflected many degrees off course. Study diagram A on page 3.

 

The fourth layer, the Inner Core, is composed of very, very hot metals (iron and nickel) with pressures so great that the metals do not flow as a liquid, but are forced to vibrate in place like a solid. Earthquake waves that reach this layer move at the greatest speeds because waves move through solids faster than through gases and liquids.  
To honor Mohorovicic, scientists have named the boundary between the crust and the mantle the Mohorovicic discontinuity or the "MOHO" for short. Beno Gutenberg discovered the boundary or discontinuity between the mantle and the outer core. This boundary was named after him, the Gutenberg discontinuity. See diagram B. 

 

Discussion Questions 


  1. How did Andrija Mohorovicic discover that the Earth's crust was made of less dense rock than the mantle. 
  2. Write in your own words the definition of a discontinuity.

Lesson #2 Content Center

CONTENT CENTER 
(PANGAEA TO THE PRESENT )
Lesson # 2
Plate Tectonics
(The Continental Drift Theory)


Earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains are all produced by the same natural processes. We know this to be true today, but even as little as one hundred years ago scientists were unsure as to how these geologic processes occurred.  
The ancient Japanese legend of Namazu  explained why earthquakes occur this way. Namazu was a giant catfish that lived under the surface of the Earth. It would shake violently and cause great destruction from time to time.  Kashima, who is a Japanese god, was the only god that was strong enough to control Namazu. Kashima would hold Namazu down and pin the catfish under a rock. When Kashima's mind would wonder, Namazu would escape and cause another earthquake.  
Many cultures have tried to explain why earthquakes and volcanoes occur through stories about their gods and goddesses. The Hawaiian Islanders thought that volcanoes were the home of the fire goddess Pele. The Romans believed that the blacksmith god, Vulcan, used volcanoes as his forge to produce weapons.
For hundreds of years people throughout the world explained earthquakes and volcanoes through myth and legend. In 1620 however Sir Francis Bacon of England declared that it was not gods and goddesses that caused natural disasters. He noticed how the coasts of Africa and South America were very much alike. In fact they could almost fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. The map on the next page shows how the two continents could fit together.



As humans traveled the world they noticed seashells high in mountains many miles from the nearest ocean. Why is there a similarity between the coasts of Africa and South America? How did those seashells end up high in the mountains? These questions along with new discoveries lead scientists to believe that the Earth is a dynamic, or constantly changing planet. It was not until the 1960's though, that scientists started to agree to the concept that the continents could move across the surface of the Earth.  
A German meteorologist by the name of Alfred Wegener showed that rock bands in South America and rock bands in Africa matched mineral content and by age exactly. He also showed that the magnetic bands in these same rocks did not point to the magnetic north pole as they should. If the continents could be moved back into the position that they were created, then they do point to the magnetic north pole. Wegener concluded that the continents must have drifted apart hundreds of miles. He did not however have an explanation as to how these massive continents could move such a great distance. 
It was not until the 1960's that geologists gained the technology to fully understand the processes that could move the Earth's plates. They concluded that the Earth's surface was composed of not one large sheet but was composed of more than twelve major pieces of crust. Geologists call these pieces plates . These plates float across the surface of the Earth like an iceberg floats on the ocean. The driving force behind these plate movements are the convection currents in the mantle. The convection currents turn very slowly dragging the plates along with these movements. The convection currents move the plates very slowly. These plates move at only 1 to 4 inches per year!!  
The lines on the map of the world on page 4 indicate the position of the plate boundaries. Boundaries are places where the plates meet.
Now geologists can finally explain the reasons that mountains are built, volcanoes erupt, and earthquakes occur. The Plate Tectonics Theory of continental movement can explain scientifically why all of these geologic processes can occur. Humans no longer have to try to explain these natural occurrences through myth and legend. 



Review Questions 


  1. In your own words explain what the Continental Drift Theory states.
  2. How did Alfred Wegener try to prove that the continents of Africa and South America were once connected.
  3. How did the ancient people of Japan explain earthquakes?
  4. How did the ancient Romans explain the presence volcanoes.

Lesson #3 Content Center

Content Center
Plate Movements
(Lesson #3)
(Mountain Building)


The great mountain ranges of the world were created because of the constant but very slow movement of the Earth's plates. When the plates of the Earth collide the crust folds into high mountain ranges. The roots of the world's great mountain ranges contain some of the oldest rocks on the surface of the Earth. Some of these rocks are over 3.5 billion years old!! These rocks were once buried deep inside the Earth and have been raised into mountains by the collisions of the plates.
These plates travel at a very slow rate about 1 to 4 inches per year. The Indian Subcontinent was a very fast mover, clipping along at over 4 inches per year. When it slammed into the Eurasian plate over 24 million years ago the collision built the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayas. In fact, the Himalayas are still climbing higher and higher today.  
Math Connection 
How many miles would a plate travel in 100 million years at a rate of 1 inch per year? (Hint: Divide 100,000,000 inches by 12 inches per foot and then divide that answer by 5280 feet in a mile). Answer- In 100 million years the plate would travel about 1578 miles. 

There are five ways that mountains are formed 
  1. Volcanic activity 
  2. Folding 
  3. Faulting 
  4. Dome building 
  5. Erosion


In this lesson we are going to concentrate on the processes of 1)Folding, 2)Faulting, and 3)Dome building.
All rock that is put under extreme pressure for long periods of time (thousands or millions of years) will fold like clay.  Folding is a process in which the Earth's plates are pushed together in a roller coaster like series of high points and low points. Folding bends many layers of rocks without breaking them. The Appalachian Mountains and Rocky Mountains of the United States, and the Alps of Europe are examples of mountain ranges that were formed by folding.  
Folded Strata (Layers)

 

Many of the greatest mountain ranges of the world have formed because of enormous collisions between continents. The Appalachian Mountains in the Eastern United States were formed about 400 million years ago when North America and Africa collided.

400 million years ago 

The areas (next page) represented in yellow (white) are major mountain ranges that were formed by collisions of the continents millions of years ago!!!


Mountains sometimes form when many layers of the Earth's crust are moved vertically upward at fault lines by pressures caused by plates colliding. Fault lines are great cracks in the crust. The mountains that are formed in this way are called fault-block mountains.  The Sierra Nevada mountains in California and Nevada, and the Grand Teton range of Wyoming are examples of fault-block mountains.


The Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, and the Adirondack Mountains of New York are low mountains that were formed when the crust was heaved upward without folding or faulting into a rounded dome. These are called Dome Mountains.  Dome mountains are much higher in elevation than the surrounding land and because of this erosion occurs at a very fast rate.

Thought and Discussion Questions
  1. What are the 5 causes for mountain building?
  2. What is the difference between how folded mountains and block-fault mountains are formed. 
  3. How do dome mountains form?

Lesson #1 Hands-on Center

Hands-on Center (Earth's Layers)
Lesson #1

Eating the Earth

 Materials:

  1. One-fourth of an apple for each student
  2. 1 knife


The teacher will cut each apple into four pieces, cutting from the top (stem side) down through the core. Each student should receive 1/4 of an apple. The teacher will point out the similarities between the apple and the Earth's layers (see notes below).



The skin of the apple will represent the crust of the Earth. The teacher will point out how thin the skin is in comparison to the "meat" and the core. Explain to the students that the crust compared to the rest of the Earth is much thinner than the skin is to the rest of the apple.  
The "meat" of the apple will represent the mantle of the Earth. Explain to the students that the mantle is the largest layer of the Earth. The mantle is composed of molten rock that is in a semi-plastic state. The mantle's composition is similar to very hot asphalt.  
The core of the apple will represent the outer and inner cores of the Earth. Make sure that the students understand the Earth's core is composed of two layers. Point out that the core is like a little round ball in the middle of the Earth. The outer core is actually composed of very hot liquid metals, nickel and iron. The inner core is composed of the same nickel and iron but in a solid state because of intense pressure.
The students should have a science experiment notebook. Instruct them to draw and label a diagram of this and every hands-on experiment. Direct the students to write notes of what they learn as the experiment is being conducted.  
The students should draw a model of the layers of the Earth in their science notebooks labeling the crust, mantle, and the core.
The students may eat the model of the Earth after the demonstration!

Lesson #2 Hands-on Center

Hands-on Center
Pangaea to the Present
Lesson #2

Jigsaw World


Materials:  

  1. Two maps (Pangaea, World today)  
  2. Two "World Cut Up" maps  
  3. Two pieces of blue construction paper (9 X 12)
  4. Glue
  5. Scissors
  6. Markers

  1. The students will study the "World Today Map" (The black arrows indicate the direction of plate movement) and the "Pangaea/Panthassla Map".  
  2. Instruct the students to cut the two "World Cut Up" maps on the red lines.  
  3. The students will then place and paste the continents at the position that they were located 250 million years ago in the great ocean called Panthassla.  
  4. The students will then make a prediction of what the world will look like in 100 million years. The students should use the "World Map Today" in making their predictions. 
  5. Instruct the students to place the remaining continent cutouts and paste them onto the other piece of blue construction paper.
  6. The students should also predict where new mountains will form and where new volcanoes will erupt by marking them on their prediction maps using markers.  
  7. Have the students write in their science notebooks what their reasons were for placing the continents where they did. 






Lesson #3 Hands-on Center

Hands-on Center
(How Plates Move)
Lesson #3

Building Mountains
Modified and adapted from John Farndon's book
How the Earth Works
Materials: 

  1. Four strips of foam rubber 4 inches by 30 inches and about 1 inch thick. The foam rubber should be made of different colors. These strips will represent layers (strata) in the crust of the earth.



The students will set the strips in alternating layers as shown above. They will push the four layers from each end causing the layers to fold into an upside down U shape. This will represent the folding process. The upside U will represent a geologic feature called an anticline (mountain peak).  
The students will also push the layers from each end causing the four layers to fold into a U shape. This U shape will represent a geological feature called a syncline (valley).  
The teacher will explain that this is a simplified version of how folded mountains are formed and that the anticlines are the peaks and the synclines are the valleys of the mountain range.

Building Mountains II
Modified and adapted from John Farndon's book "How the Earth Works"
 
Materials:
  1. Two colors of modeling clay
  2. Two wooden blocks 4 in. x 6 in. x 4 in. or larger  


The students will lay the modeling clay flat in alternating layers. These layers of clay will represent layers (strata) in crust of the Earth. The wooden blocks will be placed one at each end of the clay layers. the students will push the blocks toward each other very, very slowly. This pushing of the blocks will represent the movement of the continental plates. The students will see the folding process in action as they build their own mountain (Anticline).

After the students have built their mountains they could cut the clay mountains in the middle, this represents plates moving apart at a fault zone. This is what happened to South America and Africa. The students should put them back together looking for the similarities between the layers. The teacher will tell the students that this is exactly how geologists tried to prove the plate tectonics theory of plate movement. 

Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions 

Lesson 1 "The Earth's Layers" 

Discussion Questions
 

  1. How did Andrija Mohorovicic discover that the Earth's crust is made of less dense rock than the mantle.  


  2. Write in your own words the definition of a discontinuity.

  3. Name the four layers of the Earth in order from the outside to the  
    center of the Earth.

  4. What causes the mantle to "flow"?

  5. What are the two main metals that make up the outer and inner core?


  6. Describe in your own words how the Earth's layers were formed. Card 2 "The Four Layers" will help you

 

Lesson 2 "Pangea to the Present" 

Discussion Questions



  1. In your own words explain what the Continental Drift Theory states.


  2. How did Alfred Wegener try to prove that the continents of Africa and South America were once connected.

  3. How did the ancient people of Japan explain earthquakes?


  4. How did the ancient Romans explain the presence volcanoes.

Lesson 3 "How Plates Move" 


Discussion Questions

  1. What causes mountain building?

  2. What is the difference between how folded mountains and block-fault mountains are formed.


  3. How do dome mountains form?


  4. In your own words explain what happens at a subduction zone.

  5. In your own words explain what happens at a mid-ocean ridge.

  6. At a subduction zone what causes magma to rise?

Discussion Questions Answer Key

Discussion Questions 

Lesson 1 "The Earth's Layers" 

Discussion Questions

  1. How did Andrija Mohorovicic discover that the Earth's crust is made of less dense rock than the mantle.  
    By studying earthquake waves. The waves moved at diferent speed and at different angles through the different layers . 

  2. Write in your own words the definition of a discontinuity.
    A discontinuity is the boundary between the layers of the Earth.
  3. Name the four layers of the Earth in order from the outside to the  
    center of the Earth.
    1.Crust 2. Mantle 3. Outer Core 4. Inner Core 

  4. What causes the mantle to "flow"?
    The mantle flows because of convection currents that are caused by very hot material in the mantle rising, cooling, and then sinking. This circular pattern causes the mantle to flow. 

  5. What are the two main metals that make up the outer and inner core?
    Nickel and Iron 

  6. Describe in your own words how the Earth's layers were formed. Card 2 "The Four Layers" will help you.
    As the Earth cooled the densest, heaviest materials sank to the middle of the Earth. The lightest materials rose to the top. This material was made mostly of rock. Rock makes up the crust of the Earth. Denser rock makes up the mantle. The most dense materials, iron and nickel, make up the inner and outer core.

Lesson 2 "Pangea to the Present" 

Discussion Questions



  1. In your own words explain what the Continental Drift Theory states.
    The Earth's plates are moved very slowly, 1-4 inches per year, by convection currents emenating from the mantle. These plates have been moving for millions of years and continue to move today. 

  2. How did Alfred Wegener try to prove that the continents of Africa and South America were once connected.
    Alfred Wegener discovered that the magnetic bands in rocks from South America did not point ot the north pole as they should. If these rocks were moved to the position that Wegener though they were created then they did point ot the northpole. He also matched rocks from Africa and South America for mineral content and age. 

  3. How did the ancient people of Japan explain earthquakes?
    The Japanese explained that earthquakes were produced by a giant catfish called Namazu. This catfish lived under the Earth's surface and shook very violently when it was not kept under control by the god Kashima. 

  4. How did the ancient Romans explain the presence volcanoes.
    Vulcan, the god of weapons, used the volcanoes off the coast of the Roman Empire as his forge.

Lesson 3 "How Plates Move" 


Discussion Questions

  1. What causes mountain building?
    Mountains are formed from the Earth's plates movements. As plates crash into each other they push the crust up high into mountains. 

  2. What is the difference between how folded mountains and block-fault mountains are formed.
    Folded mountains form into rollercoaster like formations. The layers are bent but not broken. When block-fault mountains are formed the layers are pushed up and broken into high sharp peaks and valleys. 

  3. How do dome mountains form?
    Dome mountains form when the layers of the Earth don't break or fold but are pushed up into a rounded dome shape. 


  4. In your own words explain what happens at a subduction zone.
    Two plates come together, one overriding the other at a subduction zone. The oceanic plate, which is thinner and denser, is driven under the continetal plate and into the mantle. A deep ocean trench is produced at the subduction zone. 

  5. In your own words explain what happens at a mid-ocean ridge.
    Two plates are separating with magma welling up and filling the void with newly produced crust. These spreading plates are making the oceans wider and wider while the subduction zones are making the oceans smaller and destroying old crust. 
  6. At a subduction zone what causes magma to rise?
    The oceanic crust and the upper layer of the mantle melts as it is driven into the mantleThe oceanic crust is not as dense as the mantle is. Because this material is less dense it will rise.