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IG reported that during 1-7 October visual observations of Tungurahua were limited due to cloud cover. A small ash emission drifted W on 1 October and a plume with low ash content rose 1 km on 6 October. Ashfall was reported in El Manzano (8 km SW) and Choglontus (SW) on 1 October, in El Manzano, Chontillo, and Ambato (31 km N) on 3 October, and in Pillate (8 km W) on 6 October.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NE. During 5-7 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-110 km E and ENE.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
JMA reported that five explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Calderas Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater during 29 September-3 October. Incandescence from Showa Crater was visible at night during 2-3 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-7 October plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.7 km (4,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 2 October a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) ,Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
During 1-7 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The 27 June NE-trending lava flow remained active; flows that had broken out upslope from the leading but stalled front had overtaken that front by 1 October. By 6 October the115-m-wide flow was advancing at a rate of about 120 m/day and was 1.2 km upslope from Apa`a Street. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
KVERT reported that during 26 September-3 October lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluchs N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 27-29 September and 2 October. Two explosions on 2 October generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 220 km WSW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)